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Damage detection in civil structures using high-frequency seismograms

Citation

Heckman, Vanessa Mary (2014) Damage detection in civil structures using high-frequency seismograms. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:12192013-162221707

Abstract

The dynamic properties of a structure are a function of its physical properties, and changes in the physical properties of the structure, including the introduction of structural damage, can cause changes in its dynamic behavior. Structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection methods provide a means to assess the structural integrity and safety of a civil structure using measurements of its dynamic properties. In particular, these techniques enable a quick damage assessment following a seismic event. In this thesis, the application of high-frequency seismograms to damage detection in civil structures is investigated.

Two novel methods for SHM are developed and validated using small-scale experimental testing, existing structures in situ, and numerical testing. The first method is developed for pre-Northridge steel-moment-resisting frame buildings that are susceptible to weld fracture at beam-column connections. The method is based on using the response of a structure to a nondestructive force (i.e., a hammer blow) to approximate the response of the structure to a damage event (i.e., weld fracture). The method is applied to a small-scale experimental frame, where the impulse response functions of the frame are generated during an impact hammer test. The method is also applied to a numerical model of a steel frame, in which weld fracture is modeled as the tensile opening of a Mode I crack. Impulse response functions are experimentally obtained for a steel moment-resisting frame building in situ. Results indicate that while acceleration and velocity records generated by a damage event are best approximated by the acceleration and velocity records generated by a colocated hammer blow, the method may not be robust to noise. The method seems to be better suited for damage localization, where information such as arrival times and peak accelerations can also provide indication of the damage location. This is of significance for sparsely-instrumented civil structures.

The second SHM method is designed to extract features from high-frequency acceleration records that may indicate the presence of damage. As short-duration high-frequency signals (i.e., pulses) can be indicative of damage, this method relies on the identification and classification of pulses in the acceleration records. It is recommended that, in practice, the method be combined with a vibration-based method that can be used to estimate the loss of stiffness. Briefly, pulses observed in the acceleration time series when the structure is known to be in an undamaged state are compared with pulses observed when the structure is in a potentially damaged state. By comparing the pulse signatures from these two situations, changes in the high-frequency dynamic behavior of the structure can be identified, and damage signals can be extracted and subjected to further analysis. The method is successfully applied to a small-scale experimental shear beam that is dynamically excited at its base using a shake table and damaged by loosening a screw to create a moving part. Although the damage is aperiodic and nonlinear in nature, the damage signals are accurately identified, and the location of damage is determined using the amplitudes and arrival times of the damage signal. The method is also successfully applied to detect the occurrence of damage in a test bed data set provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in which nonlinear damage is introduced into a small-scale steel frame by installing a bumper mechanism that inhibits the amount of motion between two floors. The method is successfully applied and is robust despite a low sampling rate, though false negatives (undetected damage signals) begin to occur at high levels of damage when the frequency of damage events increases. The method is also applied to acceleration data recorded on a damaged cable-stayed bridge in China, provided by the Center of Structural Monitoring and Control at the Harbin Institute of Technology. Acceleration records recorded after the date of damage show a clear increase in high-frequency short-duration pulses compared to those previously recorded. One undamage pulse and two damage pulses are identified from the data. The occurrence of the detected damage pulses is consistent with a progression of damage and matches the known chronology of damage.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Structural Health Monitoring; Damage Detection; Bridge; High-Rise Building; Wave Propagation
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Civil Engineering
Minor Option:Geophysics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Heaton, Thomas H.
Thesis Committee:
  • Beck, James L. (chair)
  • Clayton, Robert W.
  • Heaton, Thomas H.
  • Kohler, Monica D.
  • Tsai, Victor C.
Defense Date:27 September 2013
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Hartley FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Housner FundUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:12192013-162221707
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:12192013-162221707
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:8046
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Vanessa Heckman
Deposited On:26 Mar 2014 21:22
Last Modified:16 Oct 2014 23:08

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PDF (Abstract, Acknowledgements, Table of Contents, Chapter 1: Introduction) - Final Version
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PDF (Chapter 2: Experimental Study: Damage Detection Method for Weld Fracture of Beam-Column Connections in Steel Moment-Resisting-Frame Buildings) - Final Version
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PDF (Chapter 4: Numerical Study: Time-Reversed Reciprocal Method and Damage Detection Method for Weld Fracture) - Final Version
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PDF (Chapter 5: Application of High-Frequency Damage Detection Methods to Benchmark Problems) - Final Version
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PDF (Bibliography, Appendix, Chapter 6: Discussion and Conclusion) - Final Version
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