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Interacting Single Atoms with Nanophotonics for Chip-Integrated Quantum Network

Citation

Alton, Daniel James (2013) Interacting Single Atoms with Nanophotonics for Chip-Integrated Quantum Network. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/Q8MQ-JC47. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:06042013-123144999

Abstract

Underlying matter and light are their building blocks of tiny atoms and photons. The ability to control and utilize matter-light interactions down to the elementary single atom and photon level at the nano-scale opens up exciting studies at the frontiers of science with applications in medicine, energy, and information technology. Of these, an intriguing front is the development of quantum networks where N >> 1 single-atom nodes are coherently linked by single photons, forming a collective quantum entity potentially capable of performing quantum computations and simulations. Here, a promising approach is to use optical cavities within the setting of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). However, since its first realization in 1992 by Kimble et al., current proof-of-principle experiments have involved just one or two conventional cavities. To move beyond to N >> 1 nodes, in this thesis we investigate a platform born from the marriage of cavity QED and nanophotonics, where single atoms at ~100 nm near the surfaces of lithographically fabricated dielectric photonic devices can strongly interact with single photons, on a chip. Particularly, we experimentally investigate three main types of devices: microtoroidal optical cavities, optical nanofibers, and nanophotonic crystal based structures. With a microtoroidal cavity, we realized a robust and efficient photon router where single photons are extracted from an incident coherent state of light and redirected to a separate output with high efficiency. We achieved strong single atom-photon coupling with atoms located ~100 nm near the surface of a microtoroid, which revealed important aspects in the atom dynamics and QED of these systems including atom-surface interaction effects. We present a method to achieve state-insensitive atom trapping near optical nanofibers, critical in nanophotonic systems where electromagnetic fields are tightly confined. We developed a system that fabricates high quality nanofibers with high controllability, with which we experimentally demonstrate a state-insensitive atom trap. We present initial investigations on nanophotonic crystal based structures as a platform for strong atom-photon interactions. The experimental advances and theoretical investigations carried out in this thesis provide a framework for and open the door to strong single atom-photon interactions using nanophotonics for chip-integrated quantum networks.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:quantum network; single atom-photon interaction; nanophotonics; cavity quantum electrodynamics; cavity QED; strong coupling; Casimir; Casimir-Polder; atom surface interaction; photon router; microtoroid; microtoroidal resonator; atom dynamics; tapered optical fiber; nanofiber fabrication; atom trapping; photonic crystal; nanophotonic crystal
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy
Major Option:Physics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Kimble, H. Jeff
Group:IQIM, Institute for Quantum Information and Matter
Thesis Committee:
  • Kimble, H. Jeff (chair)
  • Vahala, Kerry J.
  • Motrunich, Olexei I.
  • Roukes, Michael Lee
Defense Date:22 May 2013
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:06042013-123144999
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:06042013-123144999
DOI:10.7907/Q8MQ-JC47
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:7832
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Daniel Alton
Deposited On:06 Jun 2013 22:28
Last Modified:26 Apr 2019 18:28

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