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Part I. Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico, Deduced from Conjugate Rifted Margins of the Upper Delfín Basin. Part II. Active Folding and Seismic Hazard in Central Los Angeles, California

Citation

Oskin, Michael Eugene (2002) Part I. Tectonic Evolution of the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico, Deduced from Conjugate Rifted Margins of the Upper Delfín Basin. Part II. Active Folding and Seismic Hazard in Central Los Angeles, California. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/4TQK-NH19. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-11252001-103911

Abstract

Part I of this thesis addresses the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-North America plate boundary through northwest Mexico and its implications for rifting processes. Offset ignimbrites support 255±10 km of opening across the Upper Delfín basin of the northern Gulf of California. Additional deformation from the continental margins supports 296±17 km total plate boundary displacement between coastal Sonora and the Main Gulf Escarpment in Baja California, of which at least 276±13 km occurred since ~6 Ma. This strain history requires that the plate boundary localized into the the northern Gulf of California during latest Miocene time. Only a narrow width of upper continental crust foundered into the Upper Delfín basin, such that most of the crust between Isla Tiburón and Baja California must be new transitional oceanic crust and possibly lower continental crust contributed by inflow from the rift flanks. Extension of the margins of the Upper and Lower Delfín basins is <40% in most places, though the whole crustal column may have been thinned by a factor of two, further supporting that lower crustal flow has operated here. Opening of the Upper Delfín basin was accompanied by a steady or increased strain rate on its continental margins, contrary to the expected rheology of a narrow continental rift. Reevaluation of a critical deposit of marine rocks on Isla Tiburón indicates that initial marine incursion in the northern Gulf of California also occurred during latest Miocene time. Together, these records suggest that opening of the Upper Delfín basin was an abrupt event, accompanied by a localized zone of intense extension, marine incursion, and a rapid increase in strain rate. Continental rupture in the Upper Delfín basin does not appear to have been a response to crustal weakening by intracontinental extension, but rather may have resulted from a significant increase in strain rate, brought on by a change in boundary forces. Part II of this thesis develops methods to estimate seismic hazard from blind reverse faults by analysis of fault-related folding of Late Quaternary strata, with application to the Elysian Park anticline of Los Angeles, California.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Blind thrust; continental rupture; correlation; Delfín basin; Elysian Park; extension; folding; geology; Gulf of California; ignimbrite; Isla Tiburón; Los Angeles; Mexico; Puertecitos Volcanic Province; Sonora
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Geological and Planetary Sciences
Major Option:Geology
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Stock, Joann M. (advisor)
  • Sieh, Kerry E. (advisor)
Thesis Committee:
  • Sieh, Kerry E. (chair)
  • Eiler, John M.
  • Saleeby, Jason B.
  • Stock, Joann M.
  • Wernicke, Brian P.
Defense Date:23 October 2001
Non-Caltech Author Email:oskin (AT) caltech.edu
Additional Information:Supplemental Files Information: Geologic map of a part of central coastal Sonora, Mexico: Supplement 1 from "Part I. Tectonic evolution of the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, deduced from conjugate rifted margins of the Upper Delfín Basin. Part II. Active folding and seismic hazard in central Los Angeles, California" (Thesis). Date(s) Collected: 1998/2000. Geologic map of western Isla Tiburón – Northern section: Supplement 2 from "Part I. Tectonic evolution of the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, deduced from conjugate rifted margins of the Upper Delfín Basin. Part II. Active folding and seismic hazard in central Los Angeles, California" (Thesis). Date(s) Collected: 1998/2000. Geologic map of western Isla Tiburón – Central section: Supplement 3 from "Part I. Tectonic evolution of the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, deduced from conjugate rifted margins of the Upper Delfín Basin. Part II. Active folding and seismic hazard in central Los Angeles, California" (Thesis). Date(s) Collected: 1998/2000. Geologic map of western Isla Tiburón – Southern section: Supplement 4 from "Part I. Tectonic evolution of the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, deduced from conjugate rifted margins of the Upper Delfín Basin. Part II. Active folding and seismic hazard in central Los Angeles, California" (Thesis). Date(s) Collected: 1998/2000. Geologic map of Cinco Isla, Baja California: Supplement 5 from "Part I. Tectonic evolution of the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, deduced from conjugate rifted margins of the Upper Delfín Basin. Part II. Active folding and seismic hazard in central Los Angeles, California" (Thesis). Date(s) Collected: 1995/2000. Cross-sections to accompany: Geologic map of western Isla Tiburón, Sonora, Mexico: Supplement 6 from "Part I. Tectonic evolution of the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, deduced from conjugate rifted margins of the Upper Delfín Basin. Part II. Active folding and seismic hazard in central Los Angeles, California" (Thesis).
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-11252001-103911
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-11252001-103911
DOI:10.7907/4TQK-NH19
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1053DOISupplement 1 in CaltechDATA: Geologic map of a part of central coastal Sonora, Mexico
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1054DOISupplement 2 in CaltechDATA: Geologic map of western Isla Tiburón – Northern section
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1055DOISupplement 3 in CaltechDATA: Geologic map of western Isla Tiburón – Central section
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1056DOISupplement 4 in CaltechDATA: Geologic map of western Isla Tiburón – Southern section
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1057DOISupplement 5 in CaltechDATA: Geologic map of Cinco Isla, Baja California
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1058DOISupplement 6 in CaltechDATA: Cross-sections to accompany: Geologic map of western Isla Tiburón, Sonora, Mexico
https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029%3C0459:rlopna%3E2.0.co;2DOIArticle adapted for Chapter 4.
https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(2000)112%3C693:apfote%3E2.0.co;2DOIArticle adapted for Chapter 9.
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Oskin, Michael Eugene0000-0002-6631-5326
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:4657
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:28 Nov 2001
Last Modified:01 Jul 2020 22:19

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