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I. Fundamental limitations in microelectronics. II. Power Schottky diode design and comparison with the junction diode. III. Permittivity of strontium titanate


Hoeneisen-Frost, Bruce (1972) I. Fundamental limitations in microelectronics. II. Power Schottky diode design and comparison with the junction diode. III. Permittivity of strontium titanate. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/TVY5-NY24.


Part I

The physical phenomena which will ultimately limit the packing density of planar bipolar and MOS integrated circuits are examined. The maximum packing density is obtained by minimizing the supply voltage and the size of the devices. The minimum size of a bipolar transistor is determined by junction breakdown, punch-through and doping fluctuations. The minimum size of a MOS transistor is determined by gate oxide breakdown and drain-source punch-through. The packing density of fully active bipolar or static non-complementary MOS circuits becomes limited by power dissipation. The packing density of circuits which are not fully active such as read-only memories, becomes limited by the area occupied by the devices, and the frequency is limited by the circuit time constants and by metal migration. The packing density of fully active dynamic or complementary MOS circuits is limited by the area occupied by the devices, and the frequency is limited by power dissipation and metal migration. It is concluded that read-only memories will reach approximately the same performance and packing density with MOS and bipolar technologies, while fully active circuits will reach the highest levels of integration with dynamic MOS or complementary MOS technologies.

Part II

Because the Schottky diode is a one-carrier device, it has both advantages and disadvantages with respect to the junction diode which is a two-carrier device. The advantage is that there are practically no excess minority carriers which must be swept out before the diode blocks current in the reverse direction, i.e. a much faster recovery time. The disadvantage of the Schottky diode is that for a high voltage device it is not possible to use conductivity modulation as in the p i n diode; since charge carriers are of one sign, no charge cancellation can occur and current becomes space charge limited. The Schottky diode design is developed in Section 2 and the characteristics of an optimally designed silicon Schottky diode are summarized in Fig. 9. Design criteria and quantitative comparison of junction and Schottky diodes is given in Table 1 and Fig. 10. Although somewhat approximate, the treatment allows a systematic quantitative comparison of the devices for any given application.

Part III

We interpret measurements of permittivity of perovskite strontium titanate as a function of orientation, temperature, electric field and frequency performed by Dr. Richard Neville. The free energy of the crystal is calculated as a function of polarization. The Curie-Weiss law and the LST relation are verified. A generalized LST relation is used to calculate the permittivity of strontium titanate from zero to optic frequencies. Two active optic modes are important. The lower frequency mode is attributed mainly to motion of the strontium ions with respect to the rest of the lattice, while the higher frequency active mode is attributed to motion of the titanium ions with respect to the oxygen lattice. An anomalous resonance which multi-domain strontium titanate crystals exhibit below 65°K is described and a plausible mechanism which explains the phenomenon is presented.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Electrical Engineering
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Electrical Engineering
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Mead, Carver
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:6 April 1972
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Tektronix, Inc.UNSPECIFIED
Office of Naval ResearchUNSPECIFIED
General Electric CompanyUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:04182016-112301893
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9677
Deposited On:18 Apr 2016 21:36
Last Modified:09 Nov 2022 19:20

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