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Particle fluid mechanics in shear flows, acoustic waves, and shock waves


Zung, Laurence Bei-Yu (1967) Particle fluid mechanics in shear flows, acoustic waves, and shock waves. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology.


Three different categories of flow problems of a fluid containing small particles are being considered here. They are: (i) a fluid containing small, non-reacting particles (Parts I and II); (ii) a fluid containing reacting particles (Parts III and IV); and (iii) a fluid containing particles of two distinct sizes with collisions between two groups of particles (Part V).

Part I

A numerical solution is obtained for a fluid containing small particles flowing over an infinite disc rotating at a constant angular velocity. It is a boundary layer type flow, and the boundary layer thickness for the mixture is estimated. For large Reynolds number, the solution suggests the boundary layer approximation of a fluid-particle mixture by assuming W = Wp. The error introduced is consistent with the Prandtl’s boundary layer approximation. Outside the boundary layer, the flow field has to satisfy the “inviscid equation” in which the viscous stress terms are absent while the drag force between the particle cloud and the fluid is still important. Increase of particle concentration reduces the boundary layer thickness and the amount of mixture being transported outwardly is reduced. A new parameter, β = 1/Ω τv, is introduced which is also proportional to μ. The secondary flow of the particle cloud depends very much on β. For small values of β, the particle cloud velocity attains its maximum value on the surface of the disc, and for infinitely large values of β, both the radial and axial particle velocity components vanish on the surface of the disc.

Part II

The “inviscid” equation for a gas-particle mixture is linearized to describe the flow over a wavy wall. Corresponding to the Prandtl-Glauert equation for pure gas, a fourth order partial differential equation in terms of the velocity potential ϕ is obtained for the mixture. The solution is obtained for the flow over a periodic wavy wall. For equilibrium flows where λv and λT approach zero and frozen flows in which λv and λT become infinitely large, the flow problem is basically similar to that obtained by Ackeret for a pure gas. For finite values of λv and λT, all quantities except v are not in phase with the wavy wall. Thus the drag coefficient CD is present even in the subsonic case, and similarly, all quantities decay exponentially for supersonic flows. The phase shift and the attenuation factor increase for increasing particle concentration.

Part III

Using the boundary layer approximation, the initial development of the combustion zone between the laminar mixing of two parallel streams of oxidizing agent and small, solid, combustible particles suspended in an inert gas is investigated. For the special case when the two streams are moving at the same speed, a Green’s function exists for the differential equations describing first order gas temperature and oxidizer concentration. Solutions in terms of error functions and exponential integrals are obtained. Reactions occur within a relatively thin region of the order of λD. Thus, it seems advantageous in the general study of two-dimensional laminar flame problems to introduce a chemical boundary layer of thickness λD within which reactions take place. Outside this chemical boundary layer, the flow field corresponds to the ordinary fluid dynamics without chemical reaction.

Part IV

The shock wave structure in a condensing medium of small liquid droplets suspended in a homogeneous gas-vapor mixture consists of the conventional compressive wave followed by a relaxation region in which the particle cloud and gas mixture attain momentum and thermal equilibrium. Immediately following the compressive wave, the partial pressure corresponding to the vapor concentration in the gas mixture is higher than the vapor pressure of the liquid droplets and condensation sets in. Farther downstream of the shock, evaporation appears when the particle temperature is raised by the hot surrounding gas mixture. The thickness of the condensation region depends very much on the latent heat. For relatively high latent heat, the condensation zone is small compared with ɅD.

For solid particles suspended initially in an inert gas, the relaxation zone immediately following the compression wave consists of a region where the particle temperature is first being raised to its melting point. When the particles are totally melted as the particle temperature is further increased, evaporation of the particles also plays a role.

The equilibrium condition downstream of the shock can be calculated and is independent of the model of the particle-gas mixture interaction.

Part V

For a gas containing particles of two distinct sizes and satisfying certain conditions, momentum transfer due to collisions between the two groups of particles can be taken into consideration using the classical elastic spherical ball model. Both in the relatively simple problem of normal shock wave and the perturbation solutions for the nozzle flow, the transfer of momentum due to collisions which decreases the velocity difference between the two groups of particles is clearly demonstrated. The difference in temperature as compared with the collisionless case is quite negligible.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Engineering
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Engineering and Applied Science
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Marble, Frank E.
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:10 May 1967
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Air Force Aerospace Research LaboratoriesUNSPECIFIED
Wright-Patterson Air Force BaseUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:11302015-140521884
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9297
Deposited By: Leslie Granillo
Deposited On:02 Dec 2015 16:19
Last Modified:02 Dec 2015 16:19

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