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I. The Attenuation and Dispersion of Sound in a Condensing Medium. II. The Flow of a Gas-Particle Mixture Downstream of a Normal Shock in a Nozzle


Wooten, David Clark (1967) I. The Attenuation and Dispersion of Sound in a Condensing Medium. II. The Flow of a Gas-Particle Mixture Downstream of a Normal Shock in a Nozzle. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/T68P-M138.


I. The attenuation of sound due to particles suspended in a gas was first calculated by Sewell and later by Epstein in their classical works on the propagation of sound in a two-phase medium. In their work, and in more recent works which include calculations of sound dispersion, the calculations were made for systems in which there was no mass transfer between the two phases. In the present work, mass transfer between phases is included in the calculations.

The attenuation and dispersion of sound in a two-phase condensing medium are calculated as functions of frequency. The medium in which the sound propagates consists of a gaseous phase, a mixture of inert gas and condensable vapor, which contains condensable liquid droplets. The droplets, which interact with the gaseous phase through the interchange of momentum, energy, and mass (through evaporation and condensation), are treated from the continuum viewpoint. Limiting cases, for flow either frozen or in equilibrium with respect to the various exchange processes, help demonstrate the effects of mass transfer between phases. Included in the calculation is the effect of thermal relaxation within droplets. Pressure relaxation between the two phases is examined, but is not included as a contributing factor because it is of interest only at much higher frequencies than the other relaxation processes. The results for a system typical of sodium droplets in sodium vapor are compared to calculations in which there is no mass exchange between phases. It is found that the maximum attenuation is about 25 per cent greater and occurs at about one-half the frequency for the case which includes mass transfer, and that the dispersion at low frequencies is about 35 per cent greater. Results for different values of latent heat are compared.

II. In the flow of a gas-particle mixture through a nozzle, a normal shock may exist in the diverging section of the nozzle. In Marble’s calculation for a shock in a constant area duct, the shock was described as a usual gas-dynamic shock followed by a relaxation zone in which the gas and particles return to equilibrium. The thickness of this zone, which is the total shock thickness in the gas-particle mixture, is of the order of the relaxation distance for a particle in the gas. In a nozzle, the area may change significantly over this relaxation zone so that the solution for a constant area duct is no longer adequate to describe the flow. In the present work, an asymptotic solution, which accounts for the area change, is obtained for the flow of a gas-particle mixture downstream of the shock in a nozzle, under the assumption of small slip between the particles and gas. This amounts to the assumption that the shock thickness is small compared with the length of the nozzle. The shock solution, valid in the region near the shock, is matched to the well known small-slip solution, which is valid in the flow downstream of the shock, to obtain a composite solution valid for the entire flow region. The solution is applied to a conical nozzle. A discussion of methods of finding the location of a shock in a nozzle is included.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:(Applied Mechanics and Physics)
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Applied Mechanics
Minor Option:Physics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Marble, Frank E.
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:13 January 1967
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:11302015-130932926
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9296
Deposited On:01 Dec 2015 15:42
Last Modified:20 Mar 2024 22:33

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