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Theory of ozone isotopic effects and various electron transfer reactions

Citation

Gao, Yi Qin (2001) Theory of ozone isotopic effects and various electron transfer reactions. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/fj7v-ht75. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:03192014-125137237

Abstract

Three separate topics, each stimulated by experiments, are treated theoretically in this dessertation: isotopic effects of ozone, electron transfer at interfaces, and intramolecular directional electron transfer in a supramolecular system.

The strange mass-independent isotope effect for the enrichment of ozone, which has been a puzzle in the literature for some 20 years, and the equally puzzling unconventional strong mass-dependent effect of individual reaction rate constants are studied as different aspects of a symmetry-driven behavior. A statistical (RRKM-based) theory with a hindered-rotor transition state is used. The individual rate constant ratios of recombination reactions at low pressures are calculated using the theory involving (1) small deviation from the statistical density of states for symmetric isotopomers, and (2) weak collisions for deactivation of the vibrationally excited ozone molecules. The weak collision and partitioning among exit channels play major roles in producing the large unconventional isotope effect in "unscrambled" systems. The enrichment studies reflect instead the non-statistical effect in "scrambled" systems. The theoretical results of low-pressure ozone enrichments and individual rate constant ratios obtained from these calculations are consistent with the corresponding experimental results. The isotopic exchange rate constant for the reaction ^(16)O + ^(18)O ^(18)O→+ ^(16)O ^(18)O + ^(18)O provides information on the nature of a variationally determined hindered-rotor transition state using experimental data at 130 K and 300 K. Pressure effects on the recombination rate constant, on the individual rate constant ratios and on the enrichments are also investigated. The theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data. The temperature dependence of the enrichment and rate constant ratios is also discussed, and experimental tests are suggested. The desirability of a more accurate potential energy surface for ozone in the transition state region is also noted.

Electron transfer reactions at semiconductor /liquid interfaces are studied using a tight-binding model for the semiconductors. The slab method and a z-transform method are employed in obtaining the tight-binding electronic structures of semiconductors having surfaces. The maximum electron transfer rate constants at Si/viologen^(2-/+) and InP /Me_(2)Fc^(+/O) interfaces are computed using the tight-binding type calculations for the solid and the extended-Huckel for the coupling to the redox agent at the interface. These electron transfer reactions are also studied using a free electron model for the semiconductor and the redox molecule, where Bardeen's method is adapted to calculate the coupling matrix element between the molecular and semiconductor electronic states. The calculated results for maximum rate constant of the electron transfer from the semiconductor bulk states are compared with the experimentally measured values of Lewis and coworkers, and are in reasonable agreement, without adjusting parameters. In the case of InP /liquid interface, the unusual current vs applied potential behavior is additionally interpreted, in part, by the presence of surface states.

Photoinduced electron transfer reactions in small supramolecular systems, such as 4-aminonaphthalimide compounds, are interesting in that there are, in principle, two alternative pathways (directions) for the electron transfer. The electron transfer, however, is unidirectional, as deduced from pH-dependent fluorescence quenching studies on different compounds. The role of electronic coupling matrix element and the charges in protonation are considered to explain the directionality of the electron transfer and other various results. A related mechanism is proposed to interpret the fluorescence behavior of similar molecules as fluorescent sensors of metal ions.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Chemistry, isotopic effects of ozone, electron transfers at interfaces, intramolecular directional electron transfer in a supramolecular system.
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Awards:Milton and Francis Clauser Doctoral Prize, 2001
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Marcus, Rudolph A.
Thesis Committee:
  • Kuppermann, Aron
  • Anson, Fred C.
  • Okumura, Mitchio
Defense Date:26 April 2001
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:03192014-125137237
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:03192014-125137237
DOI:10.7907/fj7v-ht75
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:8146
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Dan Anguka
Deposited On:19 Mar 2014 21:44
Last Modified:19 Apr 2021 22:32

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