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Synthesis, structure, and photophysics of polypyridophenazine transition-metal complexes


Larson, Wayne E. (1994) Synthesis, structure, and photophysics of polypyridophenazine transition-metal complexes. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/9vpr-ha57.


The condensation of phenanthroline-5,6-dione (phendione) with polyamines is a versatile synthetic route to a wide variety of chelating ligands. Condensation with 2,3- napthalene diamine gives benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (bdppz) a ligand containing weakly-coupled orbitals of benzophenazine (bpz) and 2,2' -bipyridinde(bpy) character. The bpy character gives Re and Ru complexes excited-state redox properties; intramolecular electron transfer (ET) takes place to the bpz portion of the ligand. The charge-separated state so produced has an extraordinarily-long 50 µs lifetime. The slow rate of charge recombination arises from a combination of extremely weak coupling between the metal center and the bpz acceptor orbital and Marcus "inverted region" behavior. Molecular orbital calculations show that only 3% the electron density in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital lies on the bpy atoms of bdppz, effectively trapping the transferred electron on the bpz portion. The rate of charge recombination decreases with increasing driving force, showing that these rates lie in the inverted region. Comparison of forward and back ET rates shows that donor-acceptor coupling is four orders of magnitude greater for photoinduced electron transfer than it is for thermal charge recombination.

Condensation of phendione with itself or tetramines gives a series of binucleating tetrapyridophenazine ligands of incrementally-varying coordination-site separation. When a photoredox-active metal center is attached, excited-state energy and electron transfer to an acceptor metal center at the other coordination site can be studied as a function of distance. A variety of monometallic and homo- and heterodimetallic tetrapyridophenazine complexes has been synthesized. Electro- and magnetochemistry show that no ground-state interaction exists between the metals in bimetallic complexes. Excited-state energy and electron transfer, however, takes place at rates which are invariant with increasing donor-acceptor separation, indicating that a very efficient coupling mechanism is at work. Theory and experiment have suggested that such behavior might exist in extended π-systems like those presented by these ligands.

Condensation of three equivalents of 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylenediamine with hexaketocyclohexane gives the trinucleating ligand hexaazahexamethyltrinapthalene (hhtn). Attaching two photredox-active metal centers and a third catalytic center to hhtn provides means by which multielectron photocatalyzed reactions might be carried out. The coordination properties of hhtn have been examined; X-ray crystallographic structure determination shows that the ligand's constricted coordination pocket leads to distorted geometries in its mono- and dimetallic derivatives.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Chemistry
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Gray, Harry B.
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:1 May 1994
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:05082013-114702641
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:7676
Deposited On:08 May 2013 20:49
Last Modified:09 Nov 2022 19:20

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