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Shape-memory effect in bulk and thin-film polycrystals


Shu, Yi-Chung (1999) Shape-memory effect in bulk and thin-film polycrystals. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/4NW5-3Q89.


Shape-memory effect (SME) is a phenomenon where deformation suffered below a critical temperature can be recovered on heating. About 20-30 alloys are known to exhibit SME in single crystals. However, the degree to which they retain their shape-memory behavior in polycrystals is widely varied. In particular, Ti-Ni and Cu-Zn-Al undergo cubic to monoclinic transformation and recover similar strains as single crystals; yet, the observed shape-memory behavior in the former is much better than that in the latter. We develop a model based on energy minimization to understand this difference. Using this model, we establish that texture is the very important reason why the strains recoverable in Ti-Ni are so much larger than those in Cu-based shape-memory alloys in rolled, extruded and drawn specimens. We find that even the qualitative behavior of combined tension-torsion can critically depend on the texture. The results are in good agreement with experimental observations. We extend our analysis to the behavior of very thin films with three competing length scales: the film thickness, the length scales of heterogeneity and material microstructure. We start with three-dimensional nonhomogeneous nonlinear elasticity enhanced with an interfacial energy of the van der Waals type, and derive the effective energy density as all length scales tend to zero with given limiting ratios. We do not require any priori selection of asymptotic expansion or ansatz in deriving our results. Depending on the dominating length scale, the effective energy density can be identified by three procedures: averaging, homogenization and thin-film limit. We apply our theory to martensitic thin films and use a model example to show that the shape-memory behavior can crucially depend on the relative magnitudes of these length scales. Using this theory, we show that sputtering textures in both Ti-Ni and Cu-based shape-memory thin films are not favorable for large recoverable strain. We comment on multilayers made of shape-memory and elastic materials. Finally, we suggest textures for improved SME in bulk and thin-film polycrystals.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:shape memory alloys; polycrystals; thin films; texture; homogenization
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Applied Mechanics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Bhattacharya, Kaushik
Thesis Committee:
  • Bhattacharya, Kaushik (chair)
  • Ravichandran, Guruswami
  • Knowles, James K.
  • Ortiz, Michael
  • Bruno, Oscar P.
  • Phillips, Robert B.
  • Johnson, William Lewis
Defense Date:14 September 1998
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-02212008-114547
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:705
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:11 Mar 2008
Last Modified:21 Dec 2019 01:55

Thesis Files

PDF (Shu_yc_1999.pdf) - Final Version
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