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Quantum phase transitions in disordered Bose systems


Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan (1998) Quantum phase transitions in disordered Bose systems. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/xx11-da13.


NOTE: Text or symbols not renderable in plain ASCII are indicated by [...]. Abstract is included in .pdf document. We study the nature of various quantum phase transitions corresponding to the onset of superfluidity, at zero temperature, of bosons in a quenched medium. Particle-hole symmetry plays an essential role in determining the universality class of the transitions. To obtain a model with an exact particle-hole symmetry it is necessary to use the Josephson junction array Hamiltonian, which may include disorder in the Josephson couplings between phases at different sates. The functional integral formulation of this problem in d spatial dimensions yields a (d + 1)-dimensional classical XY-model with extended disorder, constant along the extra imaginary time dimension -- the so-called random rod problem. Particle-hole symmetry may then be broken by adding nonzero chemical potentials or site energies, which may also be site dependent and random. We may then distinguish three cases: (i) exact particle-hole symmetry, in which the site energies all vanish, (ii) statistical particle-hole symmetry in which the site energy distribution is symmetric about zero and hence vanishes on average, and (iii) complete absence of particle-hole symmetry in which the distribution is generic. We explore in each case the nature of the excitations in the nonsuperfluid Pose glass phase. We find, for example, that the compressibility, which has the interpretation of a temporal spin stiffness or superfluid density, is positive in cases (ii) and (iii), but that it vanishes with an essential singularity as full particle-hole symmetry is restored. We then focus on the critical point and discuss the validity of various scaling arguments. In particular, we argue that the dynamical exponent z could be different from d, and the arguments leading to their equality are incorrect. We then discuss the relevance of a type (ii) particle-hole symmetry breaking perturbation to the random rod critical behavior, identifying a nontrivial crossover exponent. This exponent cannot be calculated exactly but is argued to be positive and the symmetry breaking perturbation therefore relevant. We argue next that a perturbation of type (iii) is irrelevant to the resulting type (ii) critical behavior: the statistical symmetry is restored on large scales close to the critical point, and case (ii) therefore describes the dirty boson fixed point. Using various duality transformations we verify all of these ideas in one dimension. To study higher dimensions we attempt, with partial success, to generalize the Dorogovtsev-Cardy-Boyonovsky double epsilon expansion technique to this problem. We find that when the dimension of time [...] is sufficiently small the symmetry breaking perturbation of type (ii) is irrelevant, but that for sufficiently large [...] this is a relevant perturbation and a new stable commensurate fixed point appears. We speculate that this new fixed point becomes the dirty boson fixed point when [...] = 1. We also show that for [...], there exists a particle-hole asymmetric fixed point of type (iii), but we provide evidence that it merges with the commensurate fixed point for some finite [...]. This tends to confirm symmetry restoration at the physical [...] = 1.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Physics
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy
Major Option:Physics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Goodstein, David L.
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:12 June 1997
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-02022007-104407
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:463
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:15 Feb 2007
Last Modified:16 Apr 2021 22:58

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PDF (Mukhopadhyay_r_1998.pdf) - Final Version
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