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Space-Time Code Design and Its Applications in Wireless Networks


Jing, Yindi (2005) Space-Time Code Design and Its Applications in Wireless Networks. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/QYN9-0Z55.


This thesis has two main contributions: the designs of differential/non-differential unitary space-time codes for multiple-antenna systems and the analysis of the diversity gain when using space-time coding among nodes in wireless networks.

Capacity has long been a bottleneck in wireless communications. Recently, multiple-antenna techniques have been used in wireless communications to combat the fading effect, which improves both the channel capacity and performance greatly. A recently proposed method for communicating with multiple antennas over block-fading channels is unitary space-time modulation, which can achieve the channel capacity at high SNR. However, it is not clear how to generate well performing unitary space-time codes that lend themselves to efficient encoding and decoding. In this thesis, the design of unitary space-time codes using Cayley transform is proposed. The codes are designed based on an information-theoretic criterion and have a polynomial-time near-maximum-likelihood decoding algorithm. Simulations suggest that the resulting codes allow for effective high-rate data transmissions in multiple-antenna communication systems without knowing the channel. Another well-known transmission scheme for multiple-antenna systems with unknown channel information at both the transmitter and the receiver is differential unitary space-time modulation. It can be regarded as a generalization of DPSK and is suitable for continuous fading. In differential unitary space-time modulation, fully diverse constellations, i.e., sets of unitary matrices whose pairwise differences are non-singular, are wanted for their good pairwise error properties. In this thesis, Lie groups and their representations are used in solving the design problem. Fully diverse differential unitary space-time codes for systems with four and three transmit antennas are constructed based on the Lie groups Sp(2) and SU(3). The designed codes have high diversity products, lend themselves to a fast maximum-likelihood decoding algorithm, and simulation results show that they outperform other existing codes, especially at high SNR.

Then the idea of space-time coding devised for multiple-antenna systems is applied to communications over wireless networks. In wireless relay networks, the relay nodes encode the signals they receive from the transmit node into a distributed space-time code and transmit the encoded signals to the receive node. It is shown in this thesis that at very high SNR, the diversity gain achieved by this scheme is almost the same as that of a multiple-antenna system whose number of transmit antennas is the same as the number of relay nodes in the network, which means that the relay nodes work as if they can cooperate fully and have full knowledge of the message. However, at moderate SNR, the diversity gain of the wireless network is inferior to that of the multiple-antenna system. It is further shown that for a fixed total power consumed in the network, the optimal power allocation is that the transmitter uses half the power and the relays share the other half fairly. This result addresses the question of what performance a relay network can achieve. Both it and its extensions have many applications to wireless ad hoc and sensory network communications.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:diversity; multiple antennas; space-time code; wireless network
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Electrical Engineering
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Doyle, John Comstock
Thesis Committee:
  • Doyle, John Comstock (chair)
  • Hassibi, Babak (co-chair)
  • Vaidyanathan, P. P.
  • McEliece, Robert J.
  • Low, Steven H.
Defense Date:13 August 2004
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-09072004-204814
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:3369
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:08 Sep 2004
Last Modified:10 Dec 2020 23:34

Thesis Files

PDF (yindithesis_onesided.pdf) - Final Version
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PDF (yindithesis_twosided.pdf) - Final Version
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