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Frequency Generation Techniques for Integrated Applications


Aparicio Joo, Roberto (2004) Frequency Generation Techniques for Integrated Applications. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/S2EP-3A93.


This thesis presents novel oscillator topologies and passive structures that demonstrate improvements in performance compared to existing devices in CMOS. The contributions of this work include the development of original topologies and concepts together with practical implications in the area of integrated frequency generation.

A noise-shifting differential Colpitts oscillator topology is proposed. It is less sensitive to noise generated by the active devices than commonly used integrated oscillator topologies such as NMOS- or PMOS-only, and complementary cross-coupled. This is achieved through cyclostationary noise alignment while providing a fully differential output and large loop gain for reliable start up. An optimization strategy is derived for this oscillator that is used in the implementation of a CMOS prototype. The performance of this oscillator is compared to traditional topologies and previously published integrated oscillators achieving lower phase noise and some of the highest figures of merit, respectively.

A new circular-geometry oscillator topology is introduced. It allows the implementation of slab inductors for high-frequency and low-phase noise oscillator applications. Slab inductors present an attractive alternative for monolitic applications where low loss, low impedance, and high self-resonance integrated inductors are required. A general methodology to ensure the proper oscillation mode when several oscillator cores are coupled in a circular-geometry as well as to achieve a stable dc bias point is offered. Several circular-geometry CMOS integrated oscillator prototypes are presented as a proof of concept and their performances are compared to previously published high frequency oscillators achieving some of the best figures of merit.

Theoretical limits for the capacitance density of integrated capacitors with combined lateral and vertical field components are derived. These limits are used to investigate the efficiency of various capacitive structures such as lateral flux and quasi-fractal capacitors. This study leads to two new capacitor structures with high lateral-field efficiencies. These new capacitors demonstrate larger capacities, superior matching properties, tighter tolerances, and higher self-resonance frequencies than the standard horizontal parallel plate and previously reported lateral-field capacitors, while maintaining comparable quality factors. These superior qualities are verified by simulation and experimental results.

Finally, three phase-locked-loops (PLL) are presented. A 6.6GHz PLL for applications in a concurrent dual-band CMOS receiver is described. Careful frequency planning allows the generation of the three local oscillator signals required by the entire receiver using only one PLL, reducing power consumption and chip area considerably. The design issues of an ultra-low-power PLL prototype implemented in a sub-micron CMOS process are also discussed. The design of a low-power 3.2GHz PLL implementing a phase-compensation technique for fractional-N frequency synthesis is described. It uses an on-chip delay-locked-loop tuning scheme that attenuates the fractional spur independent of the output frequency and process variations.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Analog integrated circuits; Circular-Geometry Oscillators; CMOS integrated circuits; frequency synthesis; lateral-field capacitors; LC oscillators; quadrature oscillators; voltage-controlled oscillators
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Electrical Engineering
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Hajimiri, Ali
Thesis Committee:
  • Hajimiri, Ali (chair)
  • Tai, Yu-Chong
  • Bruck, Jehoshua
  • Vahala, Kerry J.
  • Weinreb, Sander
Defense Date:9 February 2004
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-06052004-180113
Persistent URL:
Aparicio Joo, Roberto0000-0003-2910-9969
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:2455
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:07 Jun 2004
Last Modified:30 Mar 2021 16:53

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