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A Laser Light Scattering Study of Transport and Critical Phenomena

Citation

Gülari, Erdogan (1973) A Laser Light Scattering Study of Transport and Critical Phenomena. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/6YQH-1T42. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:09072018-113523680

Abstract

The intensity and Rayleigh linewidth have been measured as a function of temperature and scattering angle for light scattered by concentration fluctuations near the critical point of the binary liquid system 2,6-lutidine-water.

From the intensity data it is found that γ = 1.26 ± 0.02 and ν = 0.61 ± 0.07. From the linewidth data the mutual diffusion coefficients were calculated as a function of temperature. It is found that the diffusion coefficient decreases as the critical point is approached. The behavior of the linewidth as a function of k∈ was compared with the Kawasaki theory without the nonlocal viscosity and vertex corrections. General agreement with some systematic deviations is observed.

The shear viscosity anomaly in the same system was also studied in detail by measuring the shear viscosities as a function of temperature near the critical point. Results of analyses indicate that the viscosity is at most weakly divergent, with an exponent ø ≃ ±0.001.

Light scattering techniques have been employed to measure the mutual diffusion coefficient D as a function of concentration in ten binary mixtures and the thermal diffusivity χ in nine pure liquids and one binary mixture. The diffusion coefficient was also measured at one or two concentrations for four binary mixtures. The values obtained are in excellent agreement with the available literature data determined by more classical methods. Under most circumstances light scattering is found to offer a fast and accurate way of determining χ and D.

The turbidity τ and the decay rate Γ of the density fluctuations have been measured as a function of temperature on the critical isochore of ethane near the critical point.

From the turbidity data absolute values of isothermal compressibilities and correlation lengths were calculated. The isothermal compressibility KT and the correlation length ∈ are found to behave as:

KT = 1.24 ± 0.11 x 10-3(ΔT/Tc)-1.225 ± 0.02atm-1

∈ = 1.64 ± 0.20 (ΔT/Tc)-0.664 ± 0.02 Å.

From the Γ data thermal diffusivities, thermal conductivities and excess thermal conductivities were calculated as a function of temperature. It is found that the thermal diffusivity does not exhibit a simple power law behavior whereas the excess thermal conductivity does with an exponent of ψ = 0.605 ± 0.02. The singular part of the decay rate Γs, was compared with the Kawasaki expression with the nonlocal viscosity correction. It is observed that the nonlocal viscosity correction together with the vertex and the correlation function corrections improve the agreement between the theory and the experiment.

The results for the isothermal compressibility, the thermal conductivity and the excess thermal conductivity are in very good agreement with the available literature data.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Chemical Engineering; Chemistry
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemical Engineering
Minor Option:Chemistry
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Pings, Cornelius J.
Thesis Committee:
  • Pings, Cornelius J.
Defense Date:17 May 1973
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Earle C. Anthony FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Air Force Office of Scientific ResearchUNSPECIFIED
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Standard Oil of CaliforniaUNSPECIFIED
Procter and GambleUNSPECIFIED
Atlantic Richfield CompanyUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:09072018-113523680
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:09072018-113523680
DOI:10.7907/6YQH-1T42
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1677169DOIArticle adapted for Section III.
https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690190617DOIArticle adapted for Section IV.
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:11178
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Lisa Fischelis
Deposited On:30 Nov 2018 18:53
Last Modified:21 Dec 2019 04:39

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