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The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region [major thesis]. The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California [minor thesis]

Citation

Smith, Clay Taylor (1943) The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region [major thesis]. The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California [minor thesis]. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/EEMR-DP76. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:07022018-144808790

Abstract

The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region:

Chromite deposits have long been regarded as products of magmatic segregation. As additional data have become available, other processes have been invoked to account for the observed facts, The writer, in the employ of the U.S. Geological Survey, has visited many of the known chromite localities in the western part of the United States and has collected much field evidence bearing on the problem of the origin of chromite.

Laboratory data furnishes much information which is not compatible with some of the field data. The temperatures of intrusion of ultramafic magmas, the time-sequence of crystallization of the various constituents, and the degree of liquid immiscibility are a few of the features indicated by field relations which are difficult to reconcile with laboratory data.

Spectrochemical investigations made in connection with this research suggest that the minor elements contained in the chromite molecule, namely, nickel, manganese, silver, vanadium, sodium and cobalt, show regular variations in amount when arranged in the time-crystallization sequence proposed in this paper; such differences are thought to represent variations in the conditions of crystallization and deposition.

Each chromite deposit is regarded as having been formed under the influence of several forces. Under ideal conditions the resultant of these forces is thought to approach equilibrium, presumably consisting of a layer of olivine and small amounts of chromite in the base of the magma chamber, succeeded by a layer of chromite and topped by a large mass of olivine with small amounts of chromite; a thin layer of pyroxene may cap the mass if any is present. This ideal condition is seldom attained in nature, except in the stratiform deposits, and the degree of aberration from equilibrium conditions determines the characteristics of the ore deposit formed.

The origin of the various chromite deposits may be likened to quenching practice used to determine the constituents of a high temperature melt or liquid at various stages during its cooling cycle. Each chromite deposit is examined for evidence indicating at what stage in the process of cooling or crystallization of the ultramafic magma its development was arrested by relatively rapid cooling or quenching. Following physico-chemical principles, beginning with the ultramafic magma in a fully liquid state, many of the difficulties in understanding the formation of various types of deposits are partially explained.

The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California:

The stratigraphy and correlation of upper Cretaceous rocks comprise one of the major problems of Pacific coast geology. It is particularly significant as the search for petroleum penetrates into progressively older rook formations in California. As a step toward clarification of the problem this paper attempts to indicate the possible evolution and variation in a single fossil molluscan species during upper cretaceous and early Tertiary time.

The results of the present study are three-fold: (l) The evolution of Glycymeris veatchii has been traced. (2) The number of ribs on a valve is found to vary inversely with the geologic age of the specimen. (3) Two new varieties, Glycymeris veatchii reddingensis, and G. veatchii anae, and one new species, G. maganosensis, have been recognized, and G. major is shown to be an invalid species.

A tentative correlation of the upper cretaceous localities used in this paper is presented, and systematic description of the species and varieties described included.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Geology ; chromite deposits ; Glycymeris veatchii
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Geological and Planetary Sciences
Major Option:Geology
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Fraser, Horace J. (advisor)
  • Campbell, Ian (co-advisor)
  • Popenoe, Willis Parkison (advisor)
  • Stock, Chester (co-advisor)
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:1 January 1943
Additional Information:Major thesis [pp. 1-99]: The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region (1943). Minor thesis [pp. 179-227]: The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California (1943). Also included: [pp. 100-146]: Chromite Deposits Of Grant County, Oregon: a Preliminary Report / by T.P. Thayer (USGS Bulletin 922. Strategic Minerals Investigations 1940, pp. 75-113). And: [pp. 147-178]: Chromite Deposits in the Seiad Quadrangle Siskiyou County, California / by G. A. Rynearson and C. T. Smith (USGS Bulletin 922. Strategic Minerals Investigations 1940, pp. 281-306). Supplemental Files Information: Preliminary geologic map of East half of Canyon City belt of ultramafic rocks, Grant County, Oregon: Supplement 1 from "The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region [major thesis]. The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California [minor thesis]" (Thesis). Geographic Location Bounding Box: -118.75 Degrees East; -118.92 Degrees West; 44.417 Degrees North; 44.33 Degrees South. Geologic map of Chambers chromite deposit and sections through diamond drill holes: Supplement 2 from "The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region [major thesis]. The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California [minor thesis]" (Thesis). Geologic map and section of Iron King chromite deposit: Supplement 3 from "The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region [major thesis]. The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California [minor thesis]" (Thesis). Geologic map and sections of Dry Camp chromite deposit: Supplement 4 from "The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region [major thesis]. The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California [minor thesis]" (Thesis). Preliminary geologic map and sections of the northeastern part of the Seiad quadrangle, California: Supplement 5 from "The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region [major thesis]. The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California [minor thesis]" (Thesis). Geographic Location Bounding Box: -123.0 Degrees East; -123.25 Degrees West; 42.0 Degrees North; 41.67 Degrees South. Map and sections of the Salad Creek chromite deposit: Supplement 6 from "The Origin of Some Chromite Deposits in the Pacific Coast Region [major thesis]. The Biostratigraphy of Glycymeris veatchii in California [minor thesis]" (Thesis).
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:07022018-144808790
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:07022018-144808790
DOI:10.7907/EEMR-DP76
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/0922a/report.pdfRelated DocumentUSGS Bulletin 922: Strategic Minerals Investigations 1940
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1190DOISupplement 1 in CaltechDATA: Preliminary geologic map of East half of Canyon City belt of ultramafic rocks, Grant County, Oregon
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1191DOISupplement 2 in CaltechDATA: Geologic map of Chambers chromite deposit and sections through diamond drill holes
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1192DOISupplement 3 in CaltechDATA: Geologic map and section of Iron King chromite deposit
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1193DOISupplement 4 in CaltechDATA: Geologic map and sections of Dry Camp chromite deposit
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1194DOISupplement 5 in CaltechDATA: Preliminary geologic map and sections of the northeastern part of the Seiad quadrangle, California
https://doi.org/10.22002/D1.1195DOISupplement 6 in CaltechDATA: Map and sections of the Salad Creek chromite deposit
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:11099
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:05 Jul 2018 22:38
Last Modified:21 Dec 2019 02:00

Thesis Files

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PDF (Theses) - Final Version
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66MB
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PDF (Preliminary geologic map of East half of Canyon City belt of ultramafic rocks, Grant County, Oregon) - Supplemental Material
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PDF (Geologic map of Chambers chromite deposit and sections through diamond drill holes) - Supplemental Material
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PDF (Geologic map and section of Iron King chromite deposit) - Supplemental Material
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PDF (Geologic map and sections of Dry Camp chromite deposit) - Supplemental Material
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PDF (Preliminary geologic map and sections of the northeastern part of the Seiad quadrangle, California) - Supplemental Material
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22MB
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PDF (Map and sections of the Salad Creek chromite deposit) - Supplemental Material
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30MB

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