Naeimi, Helia (2008) Reliable integration of terascale systems with nanoscale devices. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-01242008-012650
Nanotechnology design has attracted considerable attention in recent years and seems to be the technology for the future generation of the electronic devices, either as scaled and more restricted conventional lithographic technology, or as emerging sublithographic technologies, such as nanowires, carbon nanotubes, NDR (Negative Differential Resistance) devices, or other nanotechnology devices. Each of these technologies provides one or more design benefits including feature-size scaling, high on–off ratios, and faster devices. However, all of these techniques share their most challenging design issue: reliability. Providing reliability is becoming constantly more challenging due to increases in both the device failure rate and system complexity. This work develops techniques that make achieving reliability in such systems feasible with practical area overhead and considerable improvement in area overhead and system reliability compared to related techniques.
Conventional reliability techniques focus on low defect and fault rates, i.e., single event upset (SEU). These techniques cannot simply be scaled to larger systems with more unreliable devices. If these techniques are directly applied to the high defect and fault rate of the nanotechnology regime, they suffer impractically high overhead, or they may not achieve the desired reliability. Our approach in this thesis exploits the following design patterns to achieve a considerable area reduction compared to related works and achieve high reliability: (1) Fine-grained reliability: In this technique, the system is partitioned into fine–grained blocks, and the reliability is provided for each block. This technique is used to contain the area overhead and bound the impact on the throughput. (2) Using alternative resources: This technique improves the design quality by sparing other resources when system is tight on one resource. In our work we replace some of the spacial redundancies with temporal redundancy to limit the area overhead. We further improve the system throughput to limit the throughput cost as well. (3) Defect pattern matching: With this techniques, the defective resources are located and the design is reconfigured considering the defect pattern of the chip. Then the design configuration is mapped to the chip. This technique isolates the defective resources and make use of most of defect free resources. (4) Global reliability: This technique is used to unify the reliability techniques used in different parts of the system. When using one unified technique to protect the system, the area overhead provided to protect one resource can be reused to protect other resources as well.
In the present work, we report considerable improvement in the area overhead using the above techniques. We show that using Fine-Grained Reliability, Alternative Resources, and Defect Pattern Matching, high permanent defect rates (e.g., 10%) which is the result of imperfect manufacturing can be tolerated with moderate area overhead (about 30% on average for typical designs). Again Using Alternative Resources and Fine-Grained Reliability improve the area overhead of the transient fault-tolerant designs by close to an order of magnitude compared to recent reliable works. Finally we report a fully reliable memory system that employs a Global Reliability scheme to tolerate permanent defects and transient faults, both in the memory and in the supporting logic and still achieves 100 Gbit/cm2 density for fault rate of 10−18 errors per bit per cycle and 10% junction defect rate.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))|
|Subject Keywords:||defect-tolerant; fault tolerant; nanomemory; nanoPLA; nanotechnology|
|Degree Grantor:||California Institute of Technology|
|Division:||Engineering and Applied Science|
|Major Option:||Computer Science|
|Thesis Availability:||Public (worldwide access)|
|Defense Date:||4 September 2007|
|Non-Caltech Author Email:||helia (AT) caltech.edu|
|Default Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Imported from ETD-db|
|Deposited On:||02 Apr 2008|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 02:28|
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