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Integrating Quantum Optical and Superconducting Circuits with Quantum Acoustics for Scalable Quantum Network and Computation


Luo, Jie (2020) Integrating Quantum Optical and Superconducting Circuits with Quantum Acoustics for Scalable Quantum Network and Computation. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/P0YC-CQ43.


Due to its high coherence in transmission over a large distance in the ambient environment, the quantum optical system has been a prevailing platform for long-distance quantum communication, which was recently realized over a continental distance with a low earth orbit satellite and ground stations [102, 70]. However, the pure quantum optical system has so far shown weak interactions between photon and matter, which makes it inefficient in carrying out deterministic quantum gates for quantum repeater based scalable quantum network and quantum computing. On the other hand, superconducting quantum systems operating in the microwave domain with Josephson junction transmon qubits have proven to be capable of efficient deterministic quantum operations on quantum states [86, 87, 66]. Nevertheless, such architecture is prone to errors and decoherence due to cross-talk between microwave elements in a large-scale superconducting quantum circuit. Furthermore, superconducting systems, in general, also have large footprint (100s um) elements (resonators and superconducting quantum bits) [92, 60] that limit the ability to scale up a superconducting quantum system. Moreover, microwave quantum circuits require cooling to around 10 mK, making it unsuitable for communicating quantum information outside a dilution refrigerator (DF). Micro- and nano- acoustic elements have been extensively used in conventional integrated information processing systems due to their compactness and high coherence [97]. Acoustic systems in quantum engineering also have the advantage of being a platform for universal couplings between various quantum systems including spins, optical photons, and superconducting circuits. As it will be discussed in this thesis, elements critical to scalable optical quantum network and superconducting quantum circuit can be constructed relying on the cavity optomechanics and piezoelectric interactions.

Optomechanical interaction is concerned with the light pressure coupling of cavity mechanical deformation to a strong optical field. This interaction has allowed the close to mechanical ground state cooling of mechanical resonators using laser and the ultra-sensitive displacement measurement that led to the detection of gravitational waves in the LIGO collaboration [125, 25]. Optomechanical crystals (OMCs) are lithographically patterned devices which contain a periodic structure that host bandgaps for both optical band electromagnetic waves and microwave band acoustic waves. A properly engineered defect in the crystal can confine and localize acoustic and electromagnetic modes of similar wavelengths into a small mode volume [17, 20, 21]. A strong optomechanical coupling, which can be achieved between such strongly confined co-localized optical and acoustic modes, can be used in engineering the quantum state of mechanical motion to realize useful quantum devices such as a high-coherence quantum memory [74] and an optomechanical high efficiency optical isolator for unidirectionally connecting distant optical cavities via an acoustic bus [37].

To strongly couple the mechanical degree of freedom with a superconducting quantum circuit, various methods can be used, ranging from electromechanic coupling (electric coupling to a mechanically compliant capacitor), magnetomechanical coupling (magnetic coupling to a vibrating SQUID loop), and piezoelectric coupling. The recent advent of quantum acoustics [23, 8, 9] was realized with the strong piezoelectric coupling between a superconducting transmon qubit and a high-coherence mechanical resonator. The engineered strong piezoacoustic coupling provides the possibility to carry out deterministic ultra-high fidelity two-qubit quantum gates on non-classical mechanical quantum states [52]. This ability together with the recent demonstration of ultra-long phonon lifetime mechanical resonators show the possibility of integrating the ultra-high quality mechanical resonator as a compact quantum memory element and even a new ultra-compact (10s um) quantum bit architecture for scalable superconducting quantum circuits. Furthermore, the strong piezoelectric coupling that can transduce quantum state in a superconducting circuit into mechanical wave also makes it possible to efficiently transduce a quantum state between a superconducting quantum circuit and a telecommunication band optical channel via a mechanical waveguide connected to an optomechanical crystal cavity.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Quantum Device, Quantum Computing, Photonics, Integrated Chip, Quantum Acoustics, Optomechanics, Superconducting Qubit
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Applied Physics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Painter, Oskar J.
Group:Institute for Quantum Information and Matter
Thesis Committee:
  • Vahala, Kerry J. (chair)
  • Painter, Oskar J.
  • Austin, Joanna M.
  • Faraon, Andrei
Defense Date:1 July 2019
Non-Caltech Author Email:jie.roger.luo (AT)
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:08282019-141610693
Persistent URL:
Luo, Jie0000-0002-6464-2761
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:11768
Deposited By: Jie Luo
Deposited On:09 Sep 2019 20:43
Last Modified:02 Jun 2020 21:41

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