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I. Site Effects and Exciton Structure in Molecular Crystals-Benzene. II. The First and Second Triplet States of Solid Benzene


Bernstein, Elliot R. (1968) I. Site Effects and Exciton Structure in Molecular Crystals-Benzene. II. The First and Second Triplet States of Solid Benzene. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/PMT5-3V95.


The effect of intermolecular coupling in molecular energy levels (electronic and vibrational) has been investigated in neat and isotopic mixed crystals of benzene. In the isotopic mixed crystals of C6H6, C6H5D, m-C6H4D2, p-C6H4D2, sym-C6H3D3, C6D5H, and C6D6 in either a C6H6 or C6D6 host, the following phenomena have been observed and interpreted in terms of a refined Frenkel exciton theory: a) Site shifts; b) site group splittings of the degenerate ground state vibrations of C6H6, C6D6, and sym-C6H3D3; c) the orientational effect for the isotopes without a trigonal axis in both the 1B2u electronic state and the ground state vibrations; d) intrasite Fermi resonance between molecular fundamentals due to the reduced symmetry of the crystal site; and e) intermolecular or intersite Fermi resonance between nearly degenerate states of the host and guest molecules. In the neat crystal experiments on the ground state vibrations it was possible to observe many of these phenomena in conjunction with and in addition to the exciton structure.

To theoretically interpret these diverse experimental data, the concepts of interchange symmetry, the ideal mixed crystal, and site wave functions have been developed and are presented in detail. In the interpretation of the exciton data the relative signs of the intermolecular coupling constants have been emphasized, and in the limit of the ideal mixed crystal a technique is discussed for locating the exciton band center or unobserved exciton components. A differentiation between static and dynamic interactions is made in the Frenkel limit which enables the concepts of site effects and exciton coupling to be sharpened. It is thus possible to treat the crystal induced effects in such a fashion as to make their similarities and differences quite apparent.

A calculation of the ground state vibrational phenomena (site shifts and splittings, orientational effects, and exciton structure) and of the crystal lattice modes has been carried out for these systems. This calculation serves as a test of the approximations of first order Frenkel theory and the atom-atom, pair wise interaction model for the intermolecular potentials. The general form of the potential employed was V(r) = Be-Cr - A/r6 ; the force constants were obtained from the potential by assuming the atoms were undergoing simple harmonic motion.

In part II the location and identification of the benzene first and second triplet states (3B1u and 3E1u) is given.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:(Chemistry and Physics)
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Minor Option:Physics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Robinson, G. Wilse
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:8 August 1967
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Woodrow Wilson National FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:03142016-085928606
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9612
Deposited On:18 Mar 2016 20:11
Last Modified:17 Jun 2021 23:32

Thesis Files

PDF (Part I) - Final Version
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PDF (Part II) - Final Version
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