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I. Anisotropy and Crystal Structure of Ferromagnetic Thin Films. II. Investigations into Magnetic Microstructure by Lorentz Microscopy


Suzuki, Takao (1969) I. Anisotropy and Crystal Structure of Ferromagnetic Thin Films. II. Investigations into Magnetic Microstructure by Lorentz Microscopy. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/4gb0-gj02.


The induced magnetic uniaxial anisotropy of Ni-Fe alloy films has been shown to be related to the crystal structure of the film. By use of electron diffraction, the crystal structure or vacuum-deposited films was determined over the composition range 5% to 85% Ni, with substrate temperature during deposition at various temperatures in the range 25° to 500° C. The phase diagram determined in this way has boundaries which are in fair agreement with the equilibrium boundaries for bulk material above 400°C. The (α+ ɤ) mixture phase disappears below 100°C.

The measurement of uniaxial anisotropy field for 25% Ni-Fe alloy films deposited at temperatures in the range -80°C to 375°C has been carried out. Comparison of the crystal structure phase diagram with the present data and those published by Wilts indicates that the anisotropy is strongly sensitive to crystal structure. Others have proposed pair ordering as an important source of anisotropy because of an apparent peak in the anisotropy energy at about 50% Ni composition. The present work shows no such peak, and leads to the conclusion that pair ordering cannot be a dominant contributor.

Width of the 180° domain wall in 76% Ni-Fe alloy films as a function of film thickness up to 1800 Å was measured using the defocused mode of Lorentz microscopy. For the thinner films, the measured wall widths are in good agreement with earlier data obtained by Fuchs. For films thicker than 800 Å, the wall width increases with film thickness to about 9000 Å at 1800 Å film thickness. Similar measurements for polycrystalline Co films with thickness from 200 to 1500 Å have been made. The wall width increases from 3000 Å at 400 Å film thickness to about 6000 Å at 1500 Å film thickness. The wall widths for Ni-Fe and Co films are much greater than predicted by present theories. The validity of the classical determination of wall width is discussed, and the comparison of the present data with theoretical results is given.

Finally, an experimental study of ripple by Lorentz microscopy in Ni-Fe alloy films has been carried out. The following should be noted: (1) the only practical way to determine experimentally a meaningful wavelength is to find a well-defined ripple periodicity by visual inspection of a photomicrograph. (2) The average wavelength is of the order of 1µ. This value is in reasonable agreement with the main wavelength predicted by the theories developed by others. The dependence of wavelength on substrate deposition temperature, alloy composition and the external magnetic field has been also studied and the results are compared with theoretical predictions. (3) The experimental fact that the ripple structure could not be observed in completely epitaxial films gives confirmation that the ripple results from the randomness of crystallite orientation. Furthermore, the experimental observation that the ripple disappeared in the range 71 and 75% Ni supports the theory that the ripple amplitude is directly dependent on the crystalline anisotropy. An attempt to experimentally determine the order of magnitude of the ripple angle was carried out. The measured angle was about 0.02 rad. The discrepancy between the experimental data and the theoretical prediction is serious. The accurate experimental determination of ripple angle is an unsolved problem.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Electrical Engineering
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Electrical Engineering
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Wilts, Charles H. (advisor)
  • Humphrey, Floyd Bernard (advisor)
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:14 May 1969
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:02222016-085859004
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9570
Deposited On:24 Feb 2016 22:24
Last Modified:25 Jun 2021 00:15

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