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Turbulent Buoyant Jets into Stratified or Flowing Ambient Fluids


Fan, Loh-Nien (1967) Turbulent Buoyant Jets into Stratified or Flowing Ambient Fluids. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/C69V-BE23.


Theoretical and experimental studies were made on two classes of buoyant jet problems, namely:

1) an inclined, round buoyant yet in a stagnant environment with linear density-stratification;

2) a round buoyant jet in a uniform cross stream of homogenous density.

Using the integral technique of analysis, assuming similarity, predictions can be made for jet trajectory, widths, and dilution ratios, in a density-stratified or flowing environment. Such information is of great importance in the design of disposal systems for sewage effluent into the ocean or waste gases into the atmosphere.

The present study of a buoyant jet in a stagnant environment has extended the Morton type of analysis to cover the effect of the initial angle of discharge. Numerical solutions have been presented for a range of initial conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted for photographic observations of the trajectories of dyed jets. In general the observed jet forms agreed well with the calculated trajectories and nominal half widths when the value of the entrainment coefficient was taken to be α = 0.082, as previously suggested by Morton.

The problem of a buoyant jet in a uniform cross stream was analyzed by assuming an entrainment mechanism based upon the vector difference between the characteristic jet velocity and the ambient velocity. The effect of the unbalanced pressure field on the sides of the jet flow was approximated by a gross drag term. Laboratory flume experiments with sinking jets which are directly analogous to buoyant jets were performed. Salt solutions were injected into fresh water at the free surface in a flume. The jet trajectories, dilution ratios and jet half widths were determined by conductivity measurements. The entrainment coefficient, α, and drag coefficient, Cd, were found from the observed jet trajectories and dilution ratios. In the ten cases studied where jet Froude number ranged from 10 to 80 and velocity ratio (jet: current) K from 4 to 16, α varied from 0.4 to 0.5 and Cd from 1.7 to 0.1. The jet mixing motion for distance within 250D was found to be dominated by the self-generated turbulence, rather than the free-stream turbulence. Similarity of concentration profiles has also been discussed.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:(Civil Engineering and Applied Mathematics)
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Civil Engineering
Minor Option:Applied Mathematics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Brooks, Norman H.
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:26 May 1967
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Public Health ServiceWP-00428
Public Health ServiceWP-00680
Federal Water Pollution Control AdministrationWP-01256-01
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:11232015-162414440
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9290
Deposited On:30 Nov 2015 19:32
Last Modified:18 Mar 2024 18:43

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