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Sputtering of the Gallium-Indium Eutectic Alloy in the Liquid Phase


Dumke, Mark Frederick (1982) Sputtering of the Gallium-Indium Eutectic Alloy in the Liquid Phase. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/psdd-pp78.


We have measured sputtering yields and angular distributions of sputtered atoms from both the solid and liquid phases of gallium, indium, and the gallium-indium eutectic alloy. This was done by Rutherford backscattering analysis of graphite collector foils. The solid eutectic target shows a predominance of indium crystallites on its surface which have to be sputtered away before the composition of the sputtered atoms equals the bulk target composition. The size of the crystallites depends upon the conditions under which the alloy is frozen. The sputtering of the liquid eutectic alloy by 15 keV Ar+ results in a ratio of indium to gallium sputtering yields which is 28 times greater than would be expected from the target stoichiometry. Furthermore, the angular distribution of gallium is much more sharply peaked about the normal to the target surface than the indium distribution. When the incident Ar+ energy is increased to 25 keV, the gallium distribution broadens to the same shape as the indium distribution. With the exception of the sharp gallium distribution taken from the liquid eutectic at 15 keV, all angular distributions from liquid targets fit a cos2 θ function. An ion-scattering-spectroscopy analysis of the liquid eutectic alloy reveals a surface layer of almost pure indium. A thermodynamic explanation for this highly segregated layer is discussed. The liquid eutectic alloy provides us with a unique target system which allows us to estimate the fraction of sputtered material which comes from the first monolayer of the surface.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Physics
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy
Major Option:Physics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Tombrello, Thomas A.
Thesis Committee:
  • Tombrello, Thomas A. (chair)
  • Johnson, William Lewis
  • Burnett, Donald S.
  • Gomez, Ricardo
Defense Date:7 October 1981
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:10292015-112154529
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9260
Deposited By: Bianca Rios
Deposited On:29 Oct 2015 23:22
Last Modified:19 Apr 2021 22:30

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