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Enzyme Induction in Neurospora crassa


Urey, John Clayton (1966) Enzyme Induction in Neurospora crassa. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/MBMA-NM23.


I. Studies on Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Glycohydrase (NADase)

NADase, like tyrosinase and L-amino acid oxidase, is not present in two day old cultures of wild type Neurospora, but it is coinduced with those two enzymes during starvation in phosphate buffer. The induction of NADase, like tyrosinase, is inhibited by puromycin. The induction of all three enzymes is inhibited by actinomycin D. These results suggest that NADase is synthesized de novo during induction as has been shown directly for tyrosinase. NADase induction differs in being inhibited by certain amino acids.

The tyrosinaseless mutant ty-1 contains a non-dialyzable, heat labile inhibitor of NADase. A new mutant, P110A, synthesizes NADase and L-amino acid oxidase while growing. A second strain, pe, fl;cot, makes NADase while growing. Both strains can be induced to make the other enzymes. These two strains prove that the control of these three enzymes is divisible. The strain P110A makes NADase even when grown in the presence of Tween 80. The synthesis of both NADase and L-amino acid oxidase by P110A is suppressed by complete medium. The theory of control of the synthesis of the enzymes is discussed.

II. Studies with EDTA

Neurospora tyrosinase contains copper but, unlike other phenol oxidases, this copper has never been removed reversibly. It was thought that the apo-enzyme might be made in vivo in the absence of copper. Therefore cultures were treated with EDTA to remove copper before the enzyme was induced. Although no apo-tyrosinase was detected, new information on the induction process was obtained.

A treatment of Neurospora with 0.5% EDTA pH 7, inhibits the subsequent induction during starvation in phosphate buffer of tyrosinase, L-amino acid oxidase and NADase. The inhibition of tyrosinase and L-amino acid oxidase induction is completely reversed by adding 5 x 10-5M CaCl2, 5 x 10-4M CuSO4, and a mixture of L-amino acids (2 x 10-3M each) to the buffer. Tyrosinase induction is also fully restored by 5 x 10-4M CaCl2 and amino acids. As yet NADase has been only partially restored.

The copper probably acts by sequestering EDTA left in the mycelium and may be replaced by nickel. The EDTA apparently removes some calcium from the mycelium, which the added calcium replaces. Magnesium cannot replace calcium. The amino acids probably replace endogenous amino acids lost to the buffer after the EDTA treatment.

The EDTA treatment also increases permeability, thereby increasing the sensitivity of induction to inhibition by actinomycin D and allowing cell contents to be lost to the induction buffer. EDTA treatment also inhibits the uptake of exogenous amino acids and their incorporation into proteins.

The lag period that precedes the first appearance of tyrosinase is demonstrated to be a separate dynamic phase of induction. It requires oxygen. It is inhibited by EDTA, but can be completed after EDTA treatment in the presence of 5 x 10-5M CaCl2 alone, although no tyrosinase is synthesized under these conditions.

The time course of induction has an early exponential phase suggesting an autocatalytic mechanism of induction.

The mode of action of EDTA, the process of induction and the kinetics of induction are discussed.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:(Biochemistry and Genetics)
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Biochemistry
Minor Option:Biology
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Horowitz, Norman Harold
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:23 June 1965
Funding AgencyGrant Number
U. S. Public Health Service2G-86
Woodrow Wilson FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:10262015-082758473
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9244
Deposited On:27 Oct 2015 16:25
Last Modified:08 Mar 2024 20:21

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