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The interactions of basic proteins and DNA

Citation

Olivera, Baldomero Marquez (1966) The interactions of basic proteins and DNA. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/6NP0-3K17. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:10012015-160718695

Abstract

I. ELECTROPHORESIS OF THE NUCLEIC ACIDS

A zone electrophoresis apparatus using ultraviolet optics has been constructed to study nucleic acids at concentrations less than 0.004%. Native DNA has a mobility about 15% higher than denatured DNA over a range of conditions. Otherwise, the electrophoretic mobility is independent of molecular weight, base composition or source. DNA mobilities change in the expected way with pH but the fractional change in mobility is less than the calculated change in charge. A small decrease in mobility accompanies an increase in ionic strength. RNA’s from various sources have mobilities slightly lower than denatured DNA except for s-RNA which travels slightly faster. The important considerations governing the mobility of nucleic acids appear to be the nature of the hydrodynamic segment, and the binding of counterions. The differences between electrophoresis and sedimentation stem from the fact that all random coil polyelectrolytes are fundamentally free draining in electrophoresis.

II. THE CYTOCHROME C/DNA COMPLEX

The basic protein, cytochrome c, has been complexed to DNA. Up to a cytochrome:DNA mass ratio of 2, a single type of complex is formed. Dissociation of this complex occurs between 0.05F and 0.1F NaCl. The complexing of cytochrome to DNA causes a slight increase in the melting temperature of the DNA, and a reduction of the electrophoretic mobility proportional to the decrease in net charge. Above a cytochrome:DNA mass ratio of 2.5, a different type of complex is formed. The results suggest that complexes such as are formed in the Kleinschmidt technique of electron microscopy would not exist in bulk solution and are exclusively film phenomena.

III. STUDIES OF THE ELECTROPHORESIS AND MELTING BEHAVIOUR OF NUCLEOHISTONES

Electrophoresis studies on reconstituted nucleohistones indicate that the electrophoretic mobility for these complexes is a function of the net charge of the complex. The mobility is therefore dependent on the charge density of the histone complexing the DNA, as well as on the histone/DNA ratio. It is found that the different histones affect the transition from native to denatured DNA in different ways. It appears that histone I is exchanging quite rapidly between DNA molecules in 0.01 F salt, while histone II is irreversibly bound. Histone III-IV enhances the capacity of non-strand separated denatured DNA to reanneal. Studies on native nucleoproteins indicate that there are no gene-sized uncomplexed DNA regions in any preparations studied.

IV. THE DISSOCIATION OF HISTONE FROM CALF THYMUS CROMATIN

Calf thymus nucleoprotein was treated with varying concentrations of NaCl. The identity of the histones associated and dissociated from the DNA at each salt concentration was determined by gel electrophoresis. It was found that there is no appreciable histone dissociation below 0.4 F NaCl. The lysine rich histones dissociate between 0.4 and 0.5 F NaCl. Their dissociation is accompanies by a marked increase in the solubility of the chromatin. The moderately lysine rich histones dissociate mainly between 0.8 and 1.1 F NaCl. There are two arginine rich histone components: the first dissociates between 0.8 F and 1.1 F NaCl, but the second class is the very last to be dissociated from the DNA (dissociation beginning at 1.0 F NaCl). By 2.0 F NaCl, essentially all the histones are dissociated.

The properties of the extracted nucleoprotein were studied. The electrophoretic mobility increases and the melting temperature decreases as more histones are dissociated from the DNA. A comparison with the dissociation of histones from DNA in NaClO4 shows that to dissociate the same class of histones, the concentration of NaCl required is twice that of NaClO4.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Chemistry
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Davidson, Norman R.
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:1 January 1966
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Fulbright/Smith-Mundt fellowshipUNSPECIFIED
CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:10012015-160718695
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:10012015-160718695
DOI:10.7907/6NP0-3K17
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9189
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Leslie Granillo
Deposited On:05 Oct 2015 18:24
Last Modified:21 Dec 2019 02:29

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