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Observation and interpretation of tectonic strain release mechanisms

Citation

Wyss, Max (1970) Observation and interpretation of tectonic strain release mechanisms. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:09232015-141041497

Abstract

In four chapters various aspects of earthquake source are studied.

Chapter I

Surface displacements that followed the Parkfield, 1966, earthquakes were measured for two years with six small-scale geodetic networks straddling the fault trace. The logarithmic rate and the periodic nature of the creep displacement recorded on a strain meter made it possible to predict creep episodes on the San Andreas fault. Some individual earthquakes were related directly to surface displacement, while in general, slow creep and aftershock activity were found to occur independently. The Parkfield earthquake is interpreted as a buried dislocation.

Chapter II

The source parameters of earthquakes between magnitude 1 and 6 were studied using field observations, fault plane solutions, and surface wave and S-wave spectral analysis. The seismic moment, MO, was found to be related to local magnitude, ML, by log MO = 1.7 ML + 15.1. The source length vs magnitude relation for the San Andreas system found to be: ML = 1.9 log L - 6.7. The surface wave envelope parameter AR gives the moment according to log MO = log AR300 + 30.1, and the stress drop, τ, was found to be related to the magnitude by τ = 0.54 M - 2.58. The relation between surface wave magnitude MS and ML is proposed to be MS = 1.7 ML - 4.1. It is proposed to estimate the relative stress level (and possibly the strength) of a source-region by the amplitude ratio of high-frequency to low-frequency waves. An apparent stress map for Southern California is presented.

Chapter III

Seismic triggering and seismic shaking are proposed as two closely related mechanisms of strain release which explain observations of the character of the P wave generated by the Alaskan earthquake of 1964, and distant fault slippage observed after the Borrego Mountain, California earthquake of 1968. The Alaska, 1964, earthquake is shown to be adequately described as a series of individual rupture events. The first of these events had a body wave magnitude of 6.6 and is considered to have initiated or triggered the whole sequence. The propagation velocity of the disturbance is estimated to be 3.5 km/sec. On the basis of circumstantial evidence it is proposed that the Borrego Mountain, 1968, earthquake caused release of tectonic strain along three active faults at distances of 45 to 75 km from the epicenter. It is suggested that this mechanism of strain release is best described as "seismic shaking."

Chapter IV

The changes of apparent stress with depth are studied in the South American deep seismic zone. For shallow earthquakes the apparent stress is 20 bars on the average, the same as for earthquakes in the Aleutians and on Oceanic Ridges. At depths between 50 and 150 km the apparent stresses are relatively high, approximately 380 bars, and around 600 km depth they are again near 20 bars. The seismic efficiency is estimated to be 0.1. This suggests that the true stress is obtained by multiplying the apparent stress by ten. The variation of apparent stress with depth is explained in terms of the hypothesis of ocean floor consumption.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Geology
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Geological and Planetary Sciences
Major Option:Geology
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Brune, J. N.
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:31 March 1970
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFGA 1087
NSFGP 2806
NSFGA 12868
NSFGA 11332
Advanced Research Projects AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Air Force Office of Scientific ResearchF44620-69-C-0067
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:09232015-141041497
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:09232015-141041497
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9170
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Benjamin Perez
Deposited On:24 Sep 2015 20:12
Last Modified:02 Dec 2020 01:02

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