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Imidazolium-Based Organic Structure Directing Agents for the Synthesis of Microporous Materials


Schmidt, Joel Edward (2016) Imidazolium-Based Organic Structure Directing Agents for the Synthesis of Microporous Materials. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/Z96H4FBM.


The central theme of this thesis is the use of imidazolium-based organic structure directing agents (OSDAs) in microporous materials synthesis. Imidazoliums are advantageous OSDAs as they are relatively inexpensive and simple to prepare, show robust stability under microporous material synthesis conditions, have led to a wide range of products, and have many permutations in structure that can be explored. The work I present involves the use of mono-, di-, and triquaternary imidazolium-based OSDAs in a wide variety of microporous material syntheses. Much of this work was motivated by successful computational predictions (Chapter 2) that led me to continue to explore these types of OSDAs. Some of the important discoveries with these OSDAs include the following: 1) Experimental evaluation and confirmation of a computational method that predicted a new OSDA for pure-silica STW, a desired framework containing helical pores that was previously very difficult to synthesize. 2) Discovery of a number of new imidazolium OSDAs to synthesize zeolite RTH, a zeolite desired for both the methanol-to-olefins reaction as well as NOX reduction in exhaust gases. This discovery enables the use of RTH for many additional investigations as the previous OSDA used to make this framework was difficult to synthesize, such that no large scale preparations would be practical. 3) The synthesis of pure-silica RTH by topotactic condensation from a layered precursor (denoted CIT-10), that can also be pillared to make a new framework material with an expanded pore system, denoted CIT-11, that can be calcined to form a new microporous material, denoted CIT-12. CIT-10 is also interesting since it is the first layered material to contain 8 membered rings through the layers, making it potentially useful in separations if delamination methods can be developed. 4) The synthesis of a new microporous material, denoted CIT-7 (framework code CSV) that contains a 2-dimensional system of 8 and 10 membered rings with a large cage at channel intersections. This material is especially important since it can be synthesized as a pure-silica framework under low-water, fluoride-mediated synthesis conditions, and as an aluminosilicate material under hydroxide mediated conditions. 5) The synthesis of high-silica heulandite (HEU) by topotactic condensation as well as direct synthesis, demonstrating new, more hydrothermally stable compositions of a previously known framework. 6) The synthesis of germanosilicate and aluminophosphate LTA using a triquaternary OSDA. All of these materials show the diverse range of products that can be formed from OSDAs that can be prepared by straightforward syntheses and have made many of these materials accessible for the first time under facile zeolite synthesis conditions.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Zeolites; microporous materials; zeolite synthesis; organic structure directing agents
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemical Engineering
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Davis, Mark E.
Thesis Committee:
  • Davis, Mark E. (chair)
  • Flagan, Richard C.
  • Rossman, George Robert
  • Zones, Stacey I.
Defense Date:6 August 2015
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship32 CFR 168a
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:08062015-163035886
Persistent URL:
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription adapted for Chapter 2 adapted for Chapter 3 adapted for Chapter 4 adapted for Chapter 5 adapted for Chapter 6 adapted for Chapter 7 adapted for Chapter 8
Schmidt, Joel Edward0000-0002-0039-2863
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9083
Deposited By: Joel Schmidt
Deposited On:19 Aug 2015 23:21
Last Modified:04 Oct 2019 00:09

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