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The streaming of 1.3-2.3 MeV cosmic-ray protons during periods between prompt solar particle events


Marshall, Francis E. (1977) The streaming of 1.3-2.3 MeV cosmic-ray protons during periods between prompt solar particle events. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/X1Z0-0M25.


The anisotropy of 1.3 - 2.3 MeV protons in interplanetary space has been measured using the Caltech Electron/Isotope Spectrometer aboard IMP-7 for 317 6-hour periods from 72/273 to 74/2. Periods dominated by prompt solar particle events are not included. The convective and diffusive anisotropies are determined from the observed anisotropy using concurrent solar wind speed measurements and observed energy spectra. The diffusive flow of particles is found to be typically toward the sun, indicating a positive radial gradient in the particle density. This anisotropy is inconsistent with previously proposed sources of low-energy proton increases seen at 1 AU which involve continual solar acceleration.

The typical properties of this new component of low-energy cosmic rays have been determine d for this period which is near solar minimum. The particles have a median intensity of 0.06 protons/ cm^(2)-sec-sr-MeV and a mean spectral index of -3.15.The amplitude of the diffusive anisotropy is approximately proportional to the solar wind speed. The rate at which particles are diffusing toward the sun is larger than the rate at which the solar wind is convecting the particles away from the sun. The 20 to 1 proton to alpha ratio typical of this new component has been reported by Mewaldt, et al. (1975b).

A propagation model with κ_(rr) assumed independent of radius and energy is used to show that the anisotropy could be due to increases similar to those found by McDonald, et al. (1975) at ~3 AU. The interplanetary Fermi-acceleration model proposed by Fisk (1976) to explain the increases seen near 3 AU is not consistent with the ~12 per cent diffusive anisotropy found.

The dependence of the diffusive anisotropy on various parameters is shown. A strong dependence of the direction of the diffusive anisotropy on the concurrently measured magnetic field direction is found, indicating a κ_⊥ less than κ_∥ to be typical for this large data set.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Physics, cosmic-ray, protons
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy
Major Option:Physics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Stone, Edward C. (advisor)
  • Vogt, Rochus E. (co-advisor)
Group:Space Radiation Laboratory
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:14 September 1976
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:10072014-104228753
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:8673
Deposited By: Dan Anguka
Deposited On:07 Oct 2014 18:09
Last Modified:09 Nov 2022 19:20

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