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Part I. Energy Straggling of ⁴He below 2.0 MeV in Al, Ni, Au, and Pt. Part II. Studies of the Ti-W Metallization System on Si


Harris, Joe Marion (1976) Part I. Energy Straggling of ⁴He below 2.0 MeV in Al, Ni, Au, and Pt. Part II. Studies of the Ti-W Metallization System on Si. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/C4FY-ZX66.


Part I.

In recent years, backscattering spectrometry has become an important tool for the analysis of thin films. An inherent limitation, though, is the loss of depth resolution due to energy straggling of the beam. To investigate this, energy straggling of 4He has been measured in thin films of Ni, Al, Au and Pt. Straggling is roughly proportional to square root of thickness, appears to have a slight energy dependence and generally decreases with decreasing atomic number of the adsorber. The results are compared with predictions of theory and with previous measurements. While Ni measurements are in fair agreement with Bohr's theory, Al measurements are 30% above and Au measurements are 40% below predicted values. The Au and Pt measurements give straggling values which are close to one another.

Part II.

MeV backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction are used to investigate the behavior of sputter-deposited Ti-W mixed films on Si substrates. During vacuum anneals at temperatures near 700°C for several hours, the metallization layer reacts with the substrate. Backscattering analysis shows that the resulting compound layer is uniform in composition and contains Ti, Wand Si. The Ti:W ratio in the compound corresponds to that of the deposited metal film. X-ray analyses with Reed and Guinier cameras reveal the presence of the ternary TixW(1-x)Si2 compound. Its composition is unaffected by oxygen contamination during annealing, but the reaction rate is affected. The rate measured on samples with about 15% oxygen contamination after annealing is linear, of the order of 0.5 Å per second at 725°C, and depends on the crystallographic orientation of the substrate and the dc bias during sputter-deposition of the Ti-W film.

Au layers of about 1000 Å thickness were deposited onto unreacted Ti-W films on Si. When annealed at 400°C these samples underwent a color change,and SEM micrographs of the samples showed that an intricate pattern of fissures which were typically 3µm wide had evolved. Analysis by electron microprobe revealed that Au had segregated preferentially into the fissures. This result suggests that Ti-W is not a barrier to Au-Si intermixing at 400°C.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Applied Physics
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Applied Physics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Nicolet, Marc-Aurele (advisor)
  • Mayer, James Walter (co-advisor)
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:16 July 1975
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:07172014-102340032
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:8550
Deposited By: Benjamin Perez
Deposited On:17 Jul 2014 18:23
Last Modified:25 Jan 2021 22:16

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