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Ancillary Ligand Effects: From Zirconium(IV)-Catalyzed Homogeneous Propylene Polymerization to Platinum(II)-Mediated C-H Bond Activation


Zhong, Hong A. (2001) Ancillary Ligand Effects: From Zirconium(IV)-Catalyzed Homogeneous Propylene Polymerization to Platinum(II)-Mediated C-H Bond Activation. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/km2k-bb61.


A series of Cs- and C1-symmetric doubly-linked ansa-metallocenes of the general formula {1,1'-SiMe2-2,2'-E-('ƞ5-C5H2-4-R1)-(ƞ5-C5H-3',5'-(CHMe2)2)}ZrC2 (E = SiMe2 (1), SiPh2 (2), SiMe2 -SiMe2 (3); R1 = H, CHMe2, C5H9, C6H11, C6H5) has been prepared. When activated by methylaluminoxane, these are active propylene polymerization catalysts. 1 and 2 produce syndiotactic polypropylenes, and 3 produces isotactic polypropylenes. Site epimerization is the major pathway for stereoerror formation for 1 and 2. In addition, the polymer chain has slightly stronger steric interaction with the diphenylsilylene linker than with the dimethylsilylene linker. This results in more frequent site epimerization and reduced syndiospecificity for 2 compared to 1.

C1-Symmetric ansa-zirconocenes [1,1 '-SiMe2-(C5H4)-(3-R-C5H3)]ZrCl2 (4), [1,1 '-SiMe2-(C5H4)-(2,4-R2-C5H2)]ZrCl2 (5) and [1,1 '-SiMe2-2,2 '-(SiMe2-SiMe2)-(C5H3)-( 4-R-C5H2)]ZrCl2 (6) have been prepared to probe the origin of isospecificity in 3. While 4 and 3 produce polymers with similar isospecificity, 5 and 6 give mostly hemi-isotactic-like polymers. It is proposed that the facile site epimerization via an associative pathway allows rapid equilibration of the polymer chain between the isospecific and aspecific insertion sites. This results in more frequent insertion from the isospecific site, which has a lower kinetic barrier for chain propagation. On the other hand, site epimerization for 5 and 6 is slow. This leads to mostly alternating insertion from the isospecific and aspecific sites, and consequently, a hemi-isotactic-like polymers. In comparison, site epimerization is even slower for 3, but enchainment from the aspecific site has an extremely high kinetic barrier for monomer coordination. Therefore, enchainment occurs preferentially from the isospecific site to produce isotactic polymers.

A series of cationic complexes [(ArN=CR-CR=NAr)PtMe(L)]+[BF4]+ (Ar = aryl; R = H, CH3; L = water, trifluoroethanol) has been prepared. They react smoothly with benzene at approximately room temperature in trifluoroethanol solvent to yield methane and the corresponding phenyl Pt(II) cations, via Pt(IV)-methyl-phenyl-hydride intermediates. The reaction products of methyl-substituted benzenes suggest an inherent reactivity preference for aromatic over benzylic C-H bond activation, which can however be overridden by steric effects. For the reaction of benzene with cationic Pt(II) complexes, in which the diimine ligands bear 3,5-disubstituted aryl groups at the nitrogen atoms, the rate-determining step is C-H bond activation. For the more sterically crowded analogs with 2,6-dimethyl-substituted aryl groups, benzene coordination becomes rate-determining. The more electron-rich the ligand, as reflected by the CO stretching frequency in the IR spectrum of the corresponding cationic carbonyl complex, the faster the rate of C-H bond activation. This finding, however, does not reflect the actual C-H bond activation process, but rather reflects only the relative ease of solvent molecules displacing water molecules to initiate the reaction. That is, the change in rates is mostly due to a ground state effect. Several lines of evidence suggest that associative substitution pathways operate to get the hydrocarbon substrate into, and out of, the coordination sphere; i.e., that benzene substitution proceeds by a solvent- (TFE-) assisted associative pathway.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Chemistry
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Bercaw, John E.
Thesis Committee:
  • Anson, Fred C. (chair)
  • Bercaw, John E.
  • Grubbs, Robert H.
  • MacMillan, David W. C.
  • Labinger, Jay A.
Defense Date:24 May 2001
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:03252014-134849293
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:8167
Deposited On:26 Mar 2014 16:56
Last Modified:30 Nov 2022 00:18

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