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Binding site size limitations of imidazole-pyrrole polyamides for recognition in the minor groove of DNA


Kelly, James J. (1996) Binding site size limitations of imidazole-pyrrole polyamides for recognition in the minor groove of DNA. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/jc2t-pr07.


The discovery that the three ring polyamide Im-Py-Py-Dp containing imidazole (Im) and pyrrole (Py) carboxamides binds the DNA sequence 5'-(A,T)G(A,T)C(A,T)-3' as an antiparallel dimer offers a new model for the design of ligands for specific recognition of sequences in the minor groove containing both G,C and A,T base pairs. In Chapter 2, experiments are described in which the sequential addition of five N- methylpyrrolecarboxamides to the imidazole-pyrrole polyamide Im-Py-Py-Dp affords a series of six homologous polyamides, Im-(Py)2-7-Dp, that differ in the size of their binding site, apparent first order binding affinity, and sequence specificity. These results demonstrate that DNA sequences up to nine base pairs in length can be specifically recognized by imidazole-pyrrole polyamides containing three to seven rings by 2:1 polyamide-DNA complex formation in the minor groove. Recognition of a nine base pair site defines the new lower limit of the binding site size that can be recognized by polyamides containing exclusively imidazole and pyrrolecarboxamides. The results of this study should provide useful guidelines for the design of new polyamides that bind longer DNA sites with enhanced affinity and specificity.

In Chapter 3 the design and synthesis of the hairpin polyamide Im-Py-Im-Py-γ-Im- Py-Im-Py-Dp is described. Quantitative DNase I footprint titration experiments reveal that Im-Py-Im-Py-γ-Im-Py-Im-Py-Dp binds six base pair 5'-(A,T)GCGC(A,T)-3' sequences with 30-fold higher affinity than the unlinked polyamide Im-Py-Im-Py-Dp. The hairpin polyamide does not discriminate between A•T and T•A at the first and sixth positions of the binding site as three sites 5'-TGCGCT-3', 5'-TGCGCA-3', and 5 'AGCGCT- 3' are bound with similar affinity. However, Im-Py-Im-Py-γ-Im-Py-Im-PyDp is specific for and discriminates between G•C and C•G base pairs in the 5'-GCGC-3' core as evidenced by lower affinities for the mismatched sites 5'-AACGCA-3', 5'- TGCGTT-3', 5'-TGCGGT-3', and 5'-ACCGCT-3'.

In Chapter 4, experiments are described in which a kinetically stable hexa-aza Schiff base La3+ complex is covalently attached to a Tat(49-72) peptide which has been shown to bind the HIV-1 TAR RNA sequence. Although these metallo-peptides cleave TAR site-specifically in the hexanucleotide loop to afford products consistent with hydrolysis, a series of control experiments suggests that the observed cleavage is not caused by a sequence-specifically bound Tat(49-72)-La(L)3+ peptide.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Chemistry
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Dervan, Peter B.
Thesis Committee:
  • Dougherty, Dennis A.
  • Rees, Douglas C.
  • Grubbs, Robert H.
  • Goddard, William A., III
Defense Date:11 December 1995
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:03112014-150124711
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:8124
Deposited By: Benjamin Perez
Deposited On:12 Mar 2014 16:47
Last Modified:09 Nov 2022 19:19

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