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Variable-Angle Electron Spectroscopic Studies of Various Polyatomic Molecular Systems


Koerting, Charles Frederick (1985) Variable-Angle Electron Spectroscopic Studies of Various Polyatomic Molecular Systems. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/YP9D-ED80.


The complementary techniques of low-energy, variable-angle electron-impact spectroscopy and ultraviolet variable-angle photoelectron spectroscopy have been used to study the electronic spectroscopy and structure of several series of molecules. Electron-impact studies were performed at incident beam energies between 25 eV and 100 eV and at scattering angles ranging from 0° to 90°. The energy-loss regions from 0 eV to greater than 15 eV were studied. Photoelectron spectroscopic studies were conducted using a HeI radiation source and spectra were measured at scattering angles from 45° to 90°. The molecules studied were chosen because of their spectroscopic, chemical, and structural interest. The operation of a new electron-impact spectrometer with multiple-mode target source capability is described. This spectrometer has been used to investigate the spin-forbidden transitions in a number of molecular systems.

The electron-impact spectroscopy of the six chloro-substituted ethylenes has been studied over the energy-loss region from 0-15 eV. Spin-forbidden excitations corresponding to the π → π*, N → T transition have been observed at excitation energies ranging from 4.13 eV in vinyl chloride to 3.54 eV in tetrachloroethylene. Symmetry-forbidden transitions of the type π → np have been oberved in trans-dichloroethyene and tetrachlor oethylene. In addition, transitions to many states lying above the first ionization potential were observed for the first time. Many of these bands have been assigned to Rydberg series converging to higher ionization potentials. The trends observed in the measured transition energies for the π → π*, N → T, and N → V as well as the π → 3s excitation are discussed and compared to those observed in the methyl- and fluoro-substituted ethylenes.

The electron energy-loss spectra of the group VIb transition metal hexacarbonyls have been studied in the 0 eV to 15 eV region. The differential cross sections were obtained for several features in the 3-7 eV energy-loss region. The symmetry-forbidden nature of the 1A1g1A1g, 2t2g(π) → 3t2g*) transition in these compounds was confirmed by the high-energy, low-angle behavior of their relative intensities. Several low lying transitions have been assigned to ligand field transitions on the basis of the energy and angular behavior of the differential cross sections for these transitions. No transitions which could clearly be assigned to singlet → triplet excitations involving metal orbitals were located. A number of states lying above the first ionization potential have been observed for the first time. A number of features in the 6-14 eV energy-loss region of the spectra of these compounds correspond quite well to those observed in free CO.

A number of exploratory studies have been performed. The π → π*, N → T, singlet → triplet excitation has been located in vinyl bromide at 4.05 eV. We have also observed this transition at approximately 3.8 eV in a cis-/trans- mixture of the 1,2-dibromoethylenes. The low-angle spectrum of iron pentacarbonyl was measured over the energy-loss region extending from 2-12 eV. A number of transitions of 8 eV or greater excitation energy were observed for the first time. Cyclopropane was also studied at both high and low angles but no clear evidence for any spin-forbidden transitions was found. The electron-impact spectrum of the methyl radical resulting from the pyrolysis of tetramethyl tin was obtained at 100 eV incident energy and at 0° scattering angle. Transitions observed at 5.70 eV and 8.30 eV agree well with the previous optical results. In addition, a number of bands were observed in the 8-14 eV region which are most likely due to Rydberg transitions converging to the higher ionization potentials of this molecule. This is the first reported electron-impact spectrum of a polyatomic free radical.

Variable-angle photoelectron spectroscopic studies were performed on a series of three-membered-ring heterocyclic compounds. These compounds are of great interest due to their highly unusual structure. Photoelectron angular distributions using HeI radiation have been measured for the first time for ethylene oxide and ethyleneimine. The measured anisotropy parameters, β, along with those measured for cyclopropane were used to confirm the orbital correlations and photoelectron band assignments. No high values of β similar to those expected for alkene π orbitals were observed for the Walsh or Forster-Coulson-Moffit type orbitals.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Electron Impact Spectroscopy, Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Beauchamp, Jesse L.
Thesis Committee:
  • Beauchamp, Jesse L. (chair)
  • Gray, Harry B.
  • Kuppermann, Aron
Defense Date:27 November 1984
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:02132014-084828083
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:8074
Deposited By: Benjamin Perez
Deposited On:13 Feb 2014 17:41
Last Modified:09 Nov 2022 19:20

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