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Proteomic Analysis of the Cdc48/Ubx Network Identifies a Role for Ubx2 in the Regulation of Lipid Biosynthesis


Kolawa, Natalie J. (2013) Proteomic Analysis of the Cdc48/Ubx Network Identifies a Role for Ubx2 in the Regulation of Lipid Biosynthesis. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/FN9G-KV67.


Cdc48/p97 is an essential, highly abundant hexameric member of the AAA (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) family. It has been linked to a variety of processes throughout the cell but it is best known for its role in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. In this system it is believed that Cdc48 behaves as a segregase, transducing the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical force to separate ubiquitin-conjugated proteins from their tightly-bound partners.

Current models posit that Cdc48 is linked to its substrates through a variety of adaptor proteins, including a family of seven proteins (13 in humans) that contain a Cdc48-binding UBX domain. As such, due to the complexity of the network of adaptor proteins for which it serves as the hub, Cdc48/p97 has the potential to exert a profound influence on the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. However, the number of known substrates of Cdc48/p97 remains relatively small, and smaller still is the number of substrates that have been linked to a specific UBX domain protein. As such, the goal of this dissertation research has been to discover new substrates and better understand the functions of the Cdc48 network. With this objective in mind, we established a proteomic screen to assemble a catalog of candidate substrate/targets of the Ubx adaptor system.

Here we describe the implementation and optimization of a cutting-edge quantitative mass spectrometry method to measure relative changes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. Utilizing this technology, and in order to better understand the breadth of function of Cdc48 and its adaptors, we then performed a global screen to identify accumulating ubiquitin conjugates in cdc48-3 and ubxΔ mutants. In this screen different ubx mutants exhibited reproducible patterns of conjugate accumulation that differed greatly from each other, pointing to various unexpected functional specializations of the individual Ubx proteins.

As validation of our mass spectrometry findings, we then examined in detail the endoplasmic-reticulum bound transcription factor Spt23, which we identified as a putative Ubx2 substrate. In these studies ubx2Δ cells were deficient in processing of Spt23 to its active p90 form, and in localizing p90 to the nucleus. Additionally, consistent with reduced processing of Spt23, ubx2Δ cells demonstrated a defect in expression of their target gene OLE1, a fatty acid desaturase. Overall, this work demonstrates the power of proteomics as a tool to identify new targets of various pathways and reveals Ubx2 as a key regulator lipid membrane biosynthesis.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Proteomics, Cell Biology, Lipid Biosynthesis, Ubiquitin System
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Major Option:Biology
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Deshaies, Raymond Joseph
Thesis Committee:
  • Chan, David C. (chair)
  • Shan, Shu-ou
  • Sternberg, Paul W.
  • Deshaies, Raymond Joseph
Defense Date:10 May 2013
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:05282013-142345187
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:7761
Deposited By: Natalie Kolawa
Deposited On:29 May 2013 23:53
Last Modified:04 Oct 2019 00:01

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