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Insights into the mechanism of human erythrocyte hexose transport : a transferred NOE study of glucose binding to GLUT1


Ross, Scott Alan (1994) Insights into the mechanism of human erythrocyte hexose transport : a transferred NOE study of glucose binding to GLUT1. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/nb45-1b79.


This study examines binding of α- and β-D-glucose in their equilibrium mixture to the glucose transporter (GLUT1) in human erythrocyte membrane preparations by an ^1H NMR method, the transferred NOE (TRNOE). This method is shown theoretically and experimentally to be a sensitive probe of weak ligand-macromolecule interactions. The TRNOEs observed are shown to arise solely from glucose binding to GLUT1. Sites at both membrane faces contribute to the TRNOEs. Binding curves obtained are consistent with a homogeneous class of sugar sites, with an apparent KD which varies (from ~30 mM to ~70 mM for both anomers) depending on the membrane preparation examined. Preparations with a higher proportion of the cytoplasmic membrane face exposed to bulk solution yield higher apparent KKDs. The glucose transport inhibitor cytochalasin B essentially eliminates the TRNOE. Nonlinearity was found in the dependence on sugar concentration of the apparent inhibition constant for cytochalasin B reversal of the TRNOE observed in the α anomer (and probably the β anomer); such nonlinearity implies the existence of ternary complexes of sugar, inhibitor and transporter. The inhibition results furthermore imply the presence of a class of relatively high-affinity (KD < 2mM) sugar sites specific for the α anomer which do not contribute to NMR-observable binding. The presence of two classes of sugar-sensitive cytochalasin B sites is also indicated. These results are compared with predictions of the alternating conformer model of glucose transport. Variation of apparent KD in the NMR-observable sites, the formation of ternary complexes and the presence of an anomer-specific site are shown to be inconsistent with this model. An alternate model is developed which reconciles these results with the known transport behavior of GLUT1. In this model, the transporter possesses (at minimum) three classes of sugar sites: (i) transport sites, which are alternately exposed to the cytoplasmic or the extracellular compartment, but never to both simultaneously, (ii) a class of sites (probably relatively low-affinity) which are confined to one compartment, and (iii) the high-affinity α anomer-specific sites, which are confined to the cytoplasmic compartment.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Chemistry
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Chan, Sunney I.
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:15 October 1993
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:05172013-114618257
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:7722
Deposited On:17 May 2013 20:52
Last Modified:16 Apr 2021 22:10

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