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I. The Biogenesis of Phenazine Pigments. II. β-Ferrocenyl Carbonium Ions. III. Chemical Shift and π-Electron Densities


Carter, Robert Everett (1962) I. The Biogenesis of Phenazine Pigments. II. β-Ferrocenyl Carbonium Ions. III. Chemical Shift and π-Electron Densities. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/GM3C-6N32.


Part I: The biogenesis of phenazine pigments in bacteria has been studied by the use of radioactive substrates. The results indicate that the pigment of Pseudomonas chlororaphis originates in the dimerization of precursors derived from anthranilic acid. The structures of all the other known phenazine pigments are compatible with such a derivation.

Part II: β-Ferrocenyl carbonium ions have been studied in solvolytic experiments with β-ferrocenyl ethyl and β-ferrocenylisopropyl tosylates. A deuterium-labelling experiment with the ethyl compound indicates the absence of cyclopentadienyl ring participation. The isotope effect in the solvolysis (in 80% acetone) of β-ferrocenylethyl-a,a-d_2 tosylate was determined. The racemization of optically active β-ferrocenylisopropyl tosylate in 60% acetone at pH 6.9 is discussed; it is suggested that the racemization may come about through a special iron-carbon interaction which leads to a symmetrical carbonium ion. A simple diagram of a β-ferrocenyl carbonium ion stabilized by iron participation is presented and discussed to scrutinize the plausibility of such participation.

Part III: The use of the equation δ = π which relates the chemical shift (δ) of an aromatic proton to the excess π-electron density q on the carbon to which the proton is attached is discussed and illustrated by examples from the current literature.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:(Chemistry, Biology)
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Biology
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Richards, John H.
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:1 January 1962
Additional Information:Title varies in the 1962 Caltech commencement program: I. The Biogenesis of Phenazine Pigments. II. Beta-Ferrocenyl Carbonium Ions. III. Chemical Shift and pi-Electron Densities
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:07292011-081826791
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:6557
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:16 Aug 2011 23:27
Last Modified:27 Nov 2023 23:46

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