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The Near Wake of a Two-Dimensional Hypersonic Blunt Body with Mass Addition


Collins, Donald James (1969) The Near Wake of a Two-Dimensional Hypersonic Blunt Body with Mass Addition. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/ZHBC-A772.


An experimental investigation of the steady, laminar nearwake flow field of a two-dimensional, adiabatic, circular cylinder with surface mass transfer has been made at a free-stream Mach number of 6. 0, and free-stream Reynolds numbers Re∞,d=0.9 and 3.0x104.

A flush-mounted porous section was used to transfer argon, nitrogen or helium into the near wake of the circular cylinder to determine the flow field associated with the addition of a passive scalar. Two cases were studied: mass transfer from the forward stagnation region, and mass transfer from the base. The pressure field was mapped by standard Pitot- and static-pressure measurements. The mass-concentration field was monitored by a continuous sampling mass-spectrometer system which utilized the output of a single mass peak to determine the relative mass-concentration levels.

For mass addition from the base, a recirculating vortex remains in the near-wake flow and the characteristic near-wake pressure is the pressure at the stagnation point created by the interaction of the reversed flow with the injected fluid. This pressure, and the entire near-wake flow field, correlates with the ratio of the momentum flux of the injected fluid to the momentum flux in the cylinder boundary layer upstream of separation, and not the mass flow of the injected fluid as predicted by Chapman.

For mass addition from the base, the axial mass concentration decays rapidly away from the base as a consequence of the countercurrent diffusion of mass into the oncoming recirculating flow. In addition, strong transverse mass-concentration gradients exist in the region between the two stagnation points and a local maximum occurs in the vicinity of the u = 0 locus for those cases in which ReSc > 0(1) for the reversed flow.

With moderate mass addition from the forward stagnation region, the near-wake pressure field is unperturbed. In addition, because there is no source in the base region, the near-wake mass-concentration field is nearly uniform in the region of reversed flow. Bounding the uniform region, in the vicinity of the viscous shear layers, narrow diffusion layers govern the transport of mass into the outer flow.

In the intermediate-wake region, immediately downstream of the neck, the mass-concentration fields for both forward and base injection are explained by a single model which incorporates the influence both of the accelerating axial velocity and of an assumed Gaussian distribution for the mass-concentration of argon. This model predicts the axial decay of mass concentration in the intermediate wake, and establishes the location of the virtual origin of the asymptotic far wake in terms of the mass-concentration profile parameters at the neck.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Aeronautics
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Aeronautics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Roshko, Anatol (advisor)
  • Lees, Lester (advisor)
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:1 December 1968
Additional Information:Thesis title in 1969 Caltech commencement program varies: The Near Wake of a Hypersonic Blunt Body with Mass Addition
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-10072002-144356
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:3957
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:07 Oct 2002
Last Modified:24 Apr 2024 21:46

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