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Lifted turbulent jet flames


Hammer, Jay A. (1993) Lifted turbulent jet flames. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/fn1k-za85.


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Experiments were conducted on lifted, turbulent jet diffusion flames. An automated technique using a linear photodiode array was implemented to measure the temporal history of the liftoff height h. The measurements enabled accurate determination of the mean liftoff height [...] under a wide range of flow conditions, including several fuels, nozzle diameters, and exit velocities [...]. The results showed an approximately linear relationship between [...] and [...], with a slight dependence on Reynolds number. A strain-rate model for liftoff, based on far-field scaling of turbulent jets, provides an explanation for the linear dependence of [...] on [...]. Measurements were also made in which the nozzle fluid contained varying amounts of air, where it was found that the slope of the [...] vs. [...] line increases faster than predicted by far-field scaling of turbulent jets. The discrepancy is attributed to near-field effects.

The amplitudes of the fluctuations in h were found to be of the order of the local large scale of the jet. There is a slight increase in normalized fluctuation level [...] with [...], and there is some variation of [...] with fuel type. The time scales of the fluctuations of h were found to be considerably longer than the local large-scale time of the turbulence [...]. By using fuels of different chemical times to vary [...], the measured correlation time [...] normalized by [...] was found to collapse with Richardson number [...]. Experiments in which the nozzles were oriented horizontally showed no change in [...], however. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate alternative explanations for the variation of [...] with [...]. These experiments included measuring the flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I simultaneously with h. L(t) was found to be nearly uncorrelated with h(t), dismissing the possibility that a feedback mechanism from L to h controls the fluctuations of h. Although I(t) is highly correlated with h(t) for the most sooting fuel, acetylene, it is not deemed responsible for the longer correlation times of that fuel. This was deduced from experiments using mixtures of hydrogen with other fuels, which produce very little radiation, but which have values of [...] comparable to those of acetylene flames.

Another experiment was conducted in which two-dimensional images of fuel concentration (CH4) and reaction zones (indicated by CH) were obtained. The images showed a wide variety of structure types, indicating that there is no universal description of the flow field at the flame base. The flame stabilization position showed large fluctuations in both the axial and radial directions. The shot to shot variation in methane number density at the flame base was also large.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Aeronautics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Roshko, Anatol
Thesis Committee:
  • Unknown, Unknown
Defense Date:14 April 1993
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-08272007-131353
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:3244
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:06 Sep 2007
Last Modified:16 Apr 2021 23:03

Thesis Files

PDF (Hammer_ja_1993.pdf) - Final Version
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