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Design, Realization, and Applications of 3D Multifunctional Nanophotonics


Roberts, Gregory David (2024) Design, Realization, and Applications of 3D Multifunctional Nanophotonics. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/1r1w-0234.


Metaoptics leverages electromagnetic phenomena and the advanced abilities of modern nanofabrication to replicate traditional optical devices in a fraction of the thickness and to realize novel, compact, multifunctional devices with no known bulk equivalent. Motivated by the expanding role of optics in modern technologies, this field has seen a rise in design techniques for realizing increasingly powerful photonic structures. Three-dimensional (3D) devices, with refractive index distributions patterned at subwavelength scales, represent an enormous design space capable of achieving highly efficient, free space, multifunctional structures. By utilizing a gradient-based, iterative optimization algorithm, a technique for nanophotonic inverse design, we demonstrate scattering structures with unique responses to all the fundamental properties of light. The algorithm is constrained such that resulting devices can be made with realistic multilayer fabrication processes. We present dielectric structures that can be placed directly on top of image sensor arrays and sort light to different pixels based on its wavelength, polarization, and angular momentum, thus enabling efficient and exotic camera technologies. The following work contains fabrication and measurement of 3D devices in the mid-infrared, practical evaluations of devices for visible light imaging applications, and visualizations of underlying structure of photonic design optimization problems.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:metaoptics, inverse design, electromagnetics, imaging, metasurfaces, optics, nanofabrication, two-photon lithography, 3d printing, mid-infrared
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Applied Physics
Thesis Availability:Not set
Research Advisor(s):
  • Faraon, Andrei
Thesis Committee:
  • Bruno, Oscar P. (chair)
  • Vahala, Kerry J.
  • Marandi, Alireza
  • Faraon, Andrei
Defense Date:10 August 2023
Non-Caltech Author Email:grerobertsg (AT)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)HR00111720035
Rothenberg Innovation Initiative (RI2)UNSPECIFIED
Army Research Office (ARO)W911NF-22-1-0097
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:08232023-220808049
Persistent URL:
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription for Chapter 3 in Chapter 4
Roberts, Gregory David0009-0002-0720-3938
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:16164
Deposited By: Gregory Roberts
Deposited On:19 Sep 2023 16:12
Last Modified:19 Sep 2023 16:12

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