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I. Backscattering and Channeling Effect Studies on Semiconductor-Metal Systems. II. Low Temperature Migration of Silicon through Metal Films


Lugujjo, Eriabu (1974) I. Backscattering and Channeling Effect Studies on Semiconductor-Metal Systems. II. Low Temperature Migration of Silicon through Metal Films. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/0zd4-s880.



Channeling measurements by backscattering of He and H ions have been made on <111>- and <110>-oriented Si covered with evaporated layers of Al and Au. The energy range was 0.4 - 1.8 MeV and the film thicknesses ranged between 100 and 1100Å for Au, and between 900 and 3000Å for Al. As a first approach to analysis of disorder in crystals, we have investigated the effects of simulated disorder in form of metal layers on the surface of Si and Ge. This has an advantage in that particle scattering in the metal films can be controlled independently of scattering in the underlying substrate. The minimum yield, half-width of the angular-yield profile and the depth dependence of aligned yield have been studied as a function of metal-film thickness and beam energy. Comparisons between experimental and calculated values have been made on the basis of two different treatments of plural scattering.

The minimum yield values obtained by applying only a step-function approximation to the angular yield profile were first evaluated as a function of film thickness. The minimum yield, angular-yield profiles and dechanneling dependence on depth obtained witl1 Al films follow the predictions of Meyer's treatment of plural scattering.

A detailed study of minimum yield values on covered Si was then made. In this case the minimum yield was calculated from the Meyer treatment and probability curves determined from (i) a step-function approximation to the angular-yield profile, and (ii) two different axial scans on uncovered Si, one of which is azimuthally averaged. The minimum yields calculated using the step-function approximation and average probability curves are in good agreement with experimental results. This suggests that the step-function approximation, although less accurate than the azimuthally averaged procedure, is adequate for use with investigations of disorder in crystals by channeling-effect measurements. On the basis of the step function approximation, we have established universal curves from which minimum yield values as a function of disorder may be obtained.


The backscattering spectrometry using 2 MeV He⁺ ions have been employed to study the phenomenon of low temperature migration of Si through thin films of Au and Ag evaporated on <110> and <111> Si single crystal substrates. The thicknesses of Au films ranged from 200 to 4000Å, and those of Ag from 200 to 800Å. Migration of Si into these metal films is observed when the systems are heat treated in an oxidizing ambient at low temperatures (150°C for Au, 400°C for Ag), well below their eutectic points (375°C for Au and 830°C for Ag).

The migration of Si is followed by formation of a silicon-oxide layer on top of the metal film. The initial growth of this oxide layer is proportional to (time)½. The factors controlling this low-temperature oxide formation have been investigated. Both oxidizing ambient and orientation of the substrate influence the oxide growth rate, and the thickness of evaporated film determines the final thickness of the oxide. A model to explain the oxide-growth mechanism is presented.

The migration of Si also has been studied through layers of Au with superimposed layers of Ag, and vice versa. It is found that the interface between Si and the metal film plays a leading role in these low-temperature migration studies.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Electrical Engineering
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Electrical Engineering
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Mayer, James Walter
Thesis Committee:
  • Mayer, James Walter
Defense Date:29 January 1974
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:01282021-190841642
Persistent URL:
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription in Si Overlaid with Al and Au Films migration of silicon through metal films: importance of silicon-metal interface of silicon oxide over gold layers on silicon substrates Migration of Silicon in Metal Films on Silicon Substrates Studied by Backscattering Techniques Line and Broad-Band Emission from Ion-Bombarded Targets of thin silicon oxide layers on silicon
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:14060
Deposited By: Kristofer Jolley
Deposited On:29 Jan 2021 00:47
Last Modified:30 Jan 2021 00:19

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