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Ultraviolet Radiation of Hypervelocity Stagnation Flows and Shock/Boundary-Layer Interactions


Yanes, Nelson Javier (2020) Ultraviolet Radiation of Hypervelocity Stagnation Flows and Shock/Boundary-Layer Interactions. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/WYHM-1218.


Shock/boundary-layer interactions can induce flow distortion, create flow separation with loss of control authority, and result in high thermal loads. Correct prediction of the flow structure and heating loads is vital for vehicle survival. However, a recent NATO workshop revealed severe underprediction of thermal loads and discrepancies in the location of separation by simulations of high enthalpy air flows. Due to the coupling between thermochemistry and fluid mechanics, a substantial effort has been placed on the development and validation of thermochemical models. As a result, there is a need for experimental data that are more than mean flow surface measurements.

Spatially resolved emission spectra are collected in the post-shock regime of hypervelocity flow over a circular cylinder and a 30-55 degree double wedge. The Hypervelocity Expansion Tube (HET) is used to generate high Mach number, high enthalpy flow (Mach numbers 5 - 7, h₀ = 4 - 8 MJ/kg) with minimal freestream dissociation. The NO γ band (A²Σ⁺ - X²Π) emission is measured in the ultraviolet range of 210-250 nm at downstream locations behind shock waves. Excitation temperatures are extracted from the NO γ emission from spectrum fitting. The result is a temperature relaxation profile that quantifies the state thermal non-equilibrium. Profiles of vibrational band intensity as a function of streamwise distance are used as direct measurements of chemical non-equilibrium in the flow.

Cylinder experiments are performed with varying freestream total enthalpy, Mach number, and test gas O₂ mole fraction to examine changes in relaxation profile. Schlieren images are used to accurately measure standoff distance. Temperature measurements are compared against a zero-dimensional state-to-state model. Strategies for spectrum fitting are presented for cases where the gas is not optically thin and for radiation containing multiple electronic states. For freestream mixtures with reduced oxygen mole fraction, an electronic excitation temperature is required to describe the radiation of the NO γ, β (B²Π - X²Π), and δ (C²Π - X²Π) transitions. The creation of electronically excited NO is discussed in the context of measured vibrational band intensities and computed NO(A) number density profiles using a two-temperature reactive Landau-Teller model.

Emission spectra are collected in the post bow shock and reattachment shock region of hypervelocity flow over a double wedge. High speed schlieren imaging is performed to investigate facility startup effects and for tracking features in a shock/boundary-layer interaction. Detector exposures occur at select times throughout the flow development process to study temporal changes in thermal and chemical non-equilibrium. Time evolution of temperatures at strategic locations of the flow is obtained from spectrum fitting. Two-temperature calculations of the oblique shock system are compared against the emission results. Radiation data are discussed in the context of recent simulation efforts.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Shock/boundary-layer interactions, UV radiation, NO gamma, stagnation flow.
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Aeronautics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Austin, Joanna M.
Thesis Committee:
  • McKeon, Beverley J. (chair)
  • Austin, Joanna M.
  • Shepherd, Joseph E.
  • Polk, James E.
Defense Date:27 January 2020
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)FA9550-15-1-0288
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)FA9550-19-1-0219
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:02112020-170613058
Persistent URL:
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription adapted for Chapter 4.
Yanes, Nelson Javier0000-0001-8423-6958
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:13637
Deposited By: Nelson Yanes
Deposited On:20 Feb 2020 22:09
Last Modified:28 Oct 2021 22:25

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