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Fabrication, Mechanical Characterization, and Modeling of 3D Architected Materials upon Static and Dynamic Loading

Citation

Portela G., Carlos Mauricio (2019) Fabrication, Mechanical Characterization, and Modeling of 3D Architected Materials upon Static and Dynamic Loading. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/75S6-SB32. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:06052019-161606954

Abstract

Architected materials have been ubiquitous in nature, enabling unique properties that are unachievable by monolithic, homogeneous materials. Inspired by natural processes, man-made three-dimensional (3D) architected materials have been reported to enable novel mechanical properties such as high stiffness- and strength-to-density ratios, extreme resilience, or high energy absorption. Furthermore, advanced fabrication techniques have enabled architected materials with feature sizes at the nanometer-scale, which exploit material size effects to approach theoretical bounds. However, most architected materials have relied on symmetry, periodicity, and lack of defects to achieve the desired mechanical response, resulting in sub-optimal mechanical response under the presence of inevitable defects. Additionally, most of these nano- and micro-architected materials have only been studied in the static regime, leaving the dynamic parameter space unexplored.

In this work, we address these issues by: (i) proposing numerical and theoretical tools that predict the behavior of architected materials with non-ideal geometries, (ii) presenting a pathway for scalable fabrication of tunable nano-architected materials, and (iii) exploring the response of nano- and micro-architected materials under three types of dynamic loading. We first explore lattice architectures with features at the micro- and millimeter scales and provide an extension to the classical stiffness scaling laws, enabled by reduced-order numerical models and experiments at both scales. After discussing the effect of nodes (i.e., junctions) on the mechanical response of lattice architectures, we propose alternative node-less geometries that eliminate the stress concentrations associated with nodes to provide extreme resilience. Using natural processes such as spinodal decomposition, we present pathways to fabricate a version of these materials with samples sizes on the order of cubic centimeters while achieving feature sizes on the order of tens of nanometers. In the dynamic regime, we design, fabricate, and test micro-architected materials with tunable vibrational band gaps through the use of architectural reconfiguration and local resonance. Lastly, we present methods to fabricate carbon-based materials at the nano- and centimeter scales and test them under supersonic impact and blast conditions, respectively. Our work provides explorations into pathways that could enable the use of nano- and micro-architected materials for applications that go beyond small-volume, quasi-static mechanical regimes.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Architected materials; nanomechanics; scaling laws; nanolattices; self-assembly; elastic wave propagation; phononic band gaps; architected composites; supersonic impact
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Mechanical Engineering
Awards:Centennial Prize for the Best Thesis in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 2019.
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Greer, Julia R. (advisor)
  • Kochmann, Dennis M. (co-advisor)
Thesis Committee:
  • Ravichandran, Guruswami (chair)
  • Daraio, Chiara
  • Greer, Julia R.
  • Kochmann, Dennis M.
Defense Date:16 May 2019
Non-Caltech Author Email:portela.cm (AT) gmail.com
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-16-1-2431
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:06052019-161606954
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:06052019-161606954
DOI:10.7907/75S6-SB32
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2017.08.052DOIArticle adapted for Chapter 2.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eml.2018.06.004DOIArticle adapted for Chapter 3.
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b01191DOIArticle adapted for Chapter 4.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03071-9DOIArticle related to Chapter 1.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08049-1DOIArticle related to Chapter 7.
https://doi.org/10.33599/nasampe/s.19.1428DOIArticle related to Chapter 3.
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Portela G., Carlos Mauricio0000-0002-2649-4235
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:11690
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Carlos Portela Galindo
Deposited On:07 Jun 2019 01:39
Last Modified:21 Jan 2020 19:30

Thesis Files

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49MB
[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 1: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 11-nm columnar sample along the [001] direction at ×50 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 2: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 11-nm isotropic sample along the [001] direction at ×50 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 3: [Ch. 4] 3-cycle compression of 11-nm lamellar sample along the [001] direction at ×50 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 4: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 11-nm lamellar sample along the [010] direction at ×50 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 5: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 44-nm columnar sample along the [001] direction at ×50 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 6: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 44-nm columnar sample along the [100] direction at ×50 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 7: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 44-nm isotropic sample along the [001] direction at ×50 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 8: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 44-nm lamellar sample along the [100] direction at ×50 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 9: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 44-nm lamellar sample along the [010] direction ×50 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 10: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 168-nm columnar sample along the [001] direction at ×20 playback speed. Nanoindenter reached load limit prior to failure, so loading is purely elastic) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 11: [Ch. 4] 1-Cycle compression of 168-nm columnar sample along the [100] direction at ×20 playback speed. Catastrophic failure) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 12: [Ch. 4] 3-cycle compression of 168-nm isotropic sample along the [001] direction at ×20 playback speed. Nanoindenter reached load limit prior to failure, so loading is purely elastic) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 13: [Ch. 4] 3-Cycle compression of 168-nm lamellar sample along the [100] direction at ×50 playback speed. Failure of shell but no catastrophic collapse) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 14: [Ch. 4] 1-Cycle compression of 168-nm lamellar sample along the [010] direction at ×20 playback speed. Catastrophic failure) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 15: [Ch. 4] Side-by-side 10-cycle compression of 11-nm columnar and 5 × 5 × 5 octet samples along the [001] direction at ×124 playback speed) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 16: [Ch. 6] Impact of SiO2 particle onto a Si substrate at v0 = 514 m/s with a rebound velocity of vr = 339 m/s) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 17: [Ch. 6] Impact of SiO2 particle onto a Si substrate at v0 = 646 m/s and shattering upon impact) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 18: [Ch. 6] Elastic impact of SiO2 particle onto ρ ≈ 17% tetrakaidecahedron carbon nanolattice at v0 ≈ 44 m/s and rebounding at vr ≈ 23 m/s. At low velocities these measured speeds are just an estimate) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 19: [Ch. 6] Impact of SiO2 particle onto ρ ≈ 17% tetrakaidecahedron carbon nanolattice at v0 = 238 m/s and rebounding at vr = 50 m/s exhibiting cratering and ejecta) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 20: [Ch. 6] Impact of SiO2 particle onto ρ ≈ 17% tetrakaidecahedron carbon nanolattice at v0 = 676 m/s exhibiting particle embedding and minor ejecta) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 21: [Ch. 6] High-speed camera video capturing blast detonation onto a carbon octetcore sandwich plate with 300 μm stainless steel face sheets. The carbon octet core had a density of ρ = 285 ± 9 kg/m3) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 22: [Ch. 6] High-speed camera video capturing blast detonation onto a carbon-epoxy octet composite core sandwich plate with 300 μm stainless steel face sheets. The composite core had a density of ρ = 1130 ± 4 kg/m3) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 23: [Ch. 6] 2D DIC of the control sandwich plate (face sheets clamped together) showing significant plastic deformation on the top sheet) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 24: [Ch. 6] 3D DIC of the carbon octet-core sandwich plate’s top sheet) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Video (MPEG) (Video 25: [Ch. 6] 3D DIC of the composite octet-core sandwich plate’s top sheet) - Supplemental Material
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