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Fundamental Studies of Reactive Intermediates in Organometallic Chemistry


Stevens, Amy Elizabeth (1981) Fundamental Studies of Reactive Intermediates in Organometallic Chemistry. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/XKHS-2M38.


The techniques of ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy and photoionization-mass spectrometry are used to characterize the thermochemistry and reactivity of transition metal and organometallic species in the gas-phase. Chapter I gives an introduction emphasizing the need for physical studies of these compounds. An assessment of the differences in chemical properties and reactivity between the gas phase and solution is also made.

Chapter II details the properties and reactions of (CO)5MnR (R = H, CH3) determined using the techniques of ion cyclotron reso­nance spectroscopy. An examination of the products (CO)5Mn(R)H+, (CO)4Mn(R)H+, and (CO)5Mn+ which result from proton transfer with varying exothermicity to (CO)5MnR permits several thermochemical and mechanistic inferences. In particular the prcton affinities of these species are derived and the mechanism of reductive elimination of RH from the conjugate acids is detailed.

An examination of processes involving negative ions yields the heterolytic bond energies D[(CO)5Mn--R+]. The hydride is found to be an exceptionally strong acid in the gas phase.

Positive and negative ion mass spectra and ion-molecule reactions are reported briefly.

Chapter III presents the results of an ion cyclotron-resonance trapped ion study of the kinetics of proton transfer from MnH+ (formed as a fragment ion from HMn(CO)5 by electron impact) to bases of varying strength. Deprotonation is rapid with bases whose proton affinity exceeds 196 ± 3 kcal mol-1. Using this value for PA[Mn] yields the homolytic bond dissociation energy D[Mn+-H] = 53 ± 3 kcal mol-1.

In Chapter IV the results of a photoionization mass­ spectrometric determination of the ionization potentials and selected fragment ion appearance potentials of (CO)5MnR where R = H , CH3, CH2F, CHF2 and CF3 are presented. A comparison of the appearance potential of (CO)5Mn+ from all five species yields the metal-carbon bond dissociation energies relative to the metal-hydrogen bond dissociation energy with no additional thermochemical data. Using the literature value D0[(CO)5Mn-H ] = 57 kcal/mol gives D0[(CO)5Mn-R] = 44, 32, 33, and 42 kcal/mol, respectively. Fragmentation thresholds for the metal carbene fragment ions (Co)5MnCXY+ where X, Y = H or F are analyzed to yield the fluoride and hydride affinities of these species. Ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy is used to examine hydride and fluoride transfer react ions involving these carbenes to corroborate the photoionization data. The carbene bond dissociation energies D0[(CO)5Mn+-CXY] decrease from 104 to 98 to 82 kcal/moL with successive substitution of F for H .

In Chapter V the proton affinities of twenty organotransition metal complexes in the gas phase are reported. Combined with adiabatic ionization potentials, these data yield metal-hydrogen hemolytic bond energies for the sixteen species for which protonation occurs on the metal center. These bond energies range from 53 to 87 kcal/mol. Bond energies increase on going from a first-row complex to its second-row homologue, but no increase is seen on going to the third-row metal. The metal-hydrogen bond energy decreases markedly with increasing oxidation state of the same metal. Comparison to isoelectronic neutral complexes is made.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Chemistry, organometallic, thermochemistry, metal-hydrogen, metal-hydrogen, metal-carbene, metal-alkyl, ion coclotron resonance, proton affinity
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Beauchamp, Jesse L.
Thesis Committee:
  • Goddard, William A., III
  • Bercaw, John E.
  • Janda, Kenneth C.
Defense Date:2 October 1980
Non-Caltech Author Email:amy.stevens (AT)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:04262018-131940882
Persistent URL:
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:10835
Deposited By: Benjamin Perez
Deposited On:27 Apr 2018 14:41
Last Modified:21 Dec 2019 02:33

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