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Low-Mass Stars and Their Companions

Citation

Montet, Benjamin Tyler (2017) Low-Mass Stars and Their Companions. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/Z9KW5D1R. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:08292016-174647631

Abstract

In this thesis, I present seven studies aimed towards better understanding the demographics and physical properties of M dwarfs and their companions. These studies focus in turn on planetary, brown dwarf, and stellar companions to M dwarfs.

I begin with an analysis of radial velocity and transit timing analyses of multi-transiting planetary systems, finding that if both signals are measured to sufficiently high precision the stellar and planetary masses can be measured to a high precision, eliminating a need for stellar models which may have systematic errors. I then combine long-term radial velocity monitoring and a direct imaging campaign to measure the occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs. I find that 6.5 +/- 3.0% of M dwarfs host a Jupiter mass or larger planet within 20 AU, with a strong dependence on stellar metallicity.

I then present two papers analyzing the LHS 6343 system, which contains a widely separated M dwarf binary (AB). Star A hosts a transiting brown dwarf (LHS 6343 C) with a 12.7 day period. By combining radial velocity data with transit photometry, I am able to measure the mass and radius of the brown dwarf to 2% precision, the most precise measurement of a brown dwarf to date. I then analyze four secondary eclipses of the LHS 6343 AC system as observed by Spitzer in order to measure the luminosity of the brown dwarf in both Spitzer bandpasses. I find the brown dwarf is consistent with theoretical models of an 1100 K T dwarf at an age of 5 Gyr and empirical observations of field T5-6 dwarfs with temperatures of 1070 +/- 130 K. This is the first non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass, radius, and multi-band photometry, making it an ideal test of evolutionary models of field brown dwarfs.

Next, I present the results of an astrometric and radial velocity campaign to measure the orbit and masses of both stars in the GJ 3305 AB system, an M+M binary comoving with 51 Eridani, a more massive star with a directly imaged planetary companion. I compare the masses of both stars to largely untested theoretical models of young M dwarfs, finding that the models are consistent with the measured mass of star A but slightly overpredict the luminosity of star B.

In the final two science chapters I focus on space-based transit surveys, present and future. First, I present the first catalog of statistically validated planets from the K2 mission, as well as updated stellar and planetary parameters for all systems with candidate planets in the first K2 field. The catalog includes K2-18b, a ``mini-Neptune'' planet that receives a stellar insolation consistent with the level that the Earth receives from the Sun, making it a useful comparison against planets of a similar size that are highly irradiated, such as GJ 1214 b. Finally, I present predictions for the WFIRST mission. While designed largely as a microlensing mission, I find it will be able to detect as many as 30,000 transiting planets towards the galactic bulge, providing information about how planet occurrence changes across the galaxy. These planets will be able to be confirmed largely through direct detection of their secondary eclipses. Moreover, I find that more than 50% of the planets it detects smaller than Neptune will be found around M dwarf hosts.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:Low-mass stars; brown dwarfs; exoplanets; statistics of planetary systems
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy
Major Option:Astrophysics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Johnson, John A.
Thesis Committee:
  • Hallinan, Gregg W. (chair)
  • Johnson, John A.
  • Hopkins, Philip F.
  • Readhead, Anthony C. S.
  • Knutson, Heather A.
Defense Date:18 July 2016
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:08292016-174647631
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:08292016-174647631
DOI:10.7907/Z9KW5D1R
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/762/2/112DOIArticle adapted for ch. 2: “Model-independent Stellar and Planetary Masses from Multi-transiting Exoplanetary Systems”
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/28DOIArticle adapted for ch. 3: “The TRENDS High-contrast Imaging Survey. IV. The Occurrence Rate of Giant Planets around M Dwarfs”
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/134DOIArticle adapted for ch. 4: “Characterizing the Cool KOIs. VII. Refined Physical Properties of the Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C”
http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/2041-8205/822/1/L6DOIArticle adapted for ch. 5: “Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and mid-T Spectral Class”
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/813/1/L11DOIArticle adapted for ch. 6: “Dynamical Masses of Young M Dwarfs: Masses and Orbital Parameters of GJ 3305 AB, the Wide Binary Companion to the Imaged Exoplanet Host 51 Eri”
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/809/1/25DOIArticle adapted for ch. 7: “Stellar and Planetary Properties of K2 Campaign 1 Candidates and Validation of 17 Planets, Including a Planet Receiving Earth-like Insolation”
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Montet, Benjamin Tyler0000-0001-7516-8308
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9906
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Benjamin Montet
Deposited On:19 Sep 2016 21:45
Last Modified:12 Dec 2016 23:35

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