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Fabrication, Characterization, And Deformation of 3D Structural Meta-Materials

Citation

Montemayor, Lauren Christine (2016) Fabrication, Characterization, And Deformation of 3D Structural Meta-Materials. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. doi:10.7907/Z9D21VH2. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:07132015-150843708

Abstract

Current technological advances in fabrication methods have provided pathways to creating architected structural meta-materials similar to those found in natural organisms that are structurally robust and lightweight, such as diatoms. Structural meta-materials are materials with mechanical properties that are determined by material properties at various length scales, which range from the material microstructure (nm) to the macro-scale architecture (μm – mm). It is now possible to exploit material size effect, which emerge at the nanometer length scale, as well as structural effects to tune the material properties and failure mechanisms of small-scale cellular solids, such as nanolattices. This work demonstrates the fabrication and mechanical properties of 3-dimensional hollow nanolattices in both tension and compression. Hollow gold nanolattices loaded in uniaxial compression demonstrate that strength and stiffness vary as a function of geometry and tube wall thickness. Structural effects were explored by increasing the unit cell angle from 30° to 60° while keeping all other parameters constant; material size effects were probed by varying the tube wall thickness, t, from 200nm to 635nm, at a constant relative density and grain size. In-situ uniaxial compression experiments reveal an order-of-magnitude increase in yield stress and modulus in nanolattices with greater lattice angles, and a 150% increase in the yield strength without a concomitant change in modulus in thicker-walled nanolattices for fixed lattice angles. These results imply that independent control of structural and material size effects enables tunability of mechanical properties of 3-dimensional architected meta-materials and highlight the importance of material, geometric, and microstructural effects in small-scale mechanics. This work also explores the flaw tolerance of 3D hollow-tube alumina kagome nanolattices with and without pre-fabricated notches, both in experiment and simulation. Experiments demonstrate that the hollow kagome nanolattices in uniaxial tension always fail at the same load when the ratio of notch length (a) to sample width (w) is no greater than 1/3, with no correlation between failure occurring at or away from the notch. For notches with (a/w) > 1/3, the samples fail at lower peak loads and this is attributed to the increased compliance as fewer unit cells span the un-notched region. Finite element simulations of the kagome tension samples show that the failure is governed by tensile loading for (a/w) < 1/3 but as (a/w) increases, bending begins to play a significant role in the failure. This work explores the flaw sensitivity of hollow alumina kagome nanolattices in tension, using experiments and simulations, and demonstrates that the discrete-continuum duality of architected structural meta-materials gives rise to their flaw insensitivity even when made entirely of intrinsically brittle materials.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:structural meta-materials, ceramic, metals, architecture, materials
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Engineering and Applied Science
Major Option:Aerospace Engineering
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Greer, Julia R.
Thesis Committee:
  • Ravichandran, Guruswami (chair)
  • Ortiz, Michael
  • Kochmann, Dennis M.
  • Greer, Julia R.
Defense Date:23 June 2015
Record Number:CaltechTHESIS:07132015-150843708
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:07132015-150843708
DOI:10.7907/Z9D21VH2
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:9058
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Lauren Montemayor
Deposited On:20 Jul 2015 23:46
Last Modified:03 Feb 2016 22:38

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