Rinker, Robert Gene (1959) I. Studies in the chemistry of sodium dithionite. II. A preliminary study of the catalyzed addition of hydrogen chloride to vinyl chloride in a stirred reactor. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-02172006-104009
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Part I: Rate studies of the air oxidation and thermal decomposition of aqueous sodium dithionite, Na2S2O4, were conducted. These experiments were supplemented by studies of the electron-paramagnetic-resonance properties and the electrolytic formation of dithionite.
In the air-oxidation experiments, the overall rate was observed to have half-order dependence on the dithionite concentration and a first-order dependence on molecular oxygen concentration. This could be explained mechanistically on the basis of an instantaneous equilibrium reaction between dithionite and the [...] radical ion.
The results of the EPR studies confirmed the presence of [...] and established the existence of equilibrium between the free radical and dithionite.
The electrolytic production of dithionite from a bisulfite solution gave current efficiencies of 75% but did not show conclusively that the reduction was either a one- or two-electron transfer process.
In the thermal decomposition studies, the overall rate showed a 3/2-order dependence on dithionite concentration and a half-order dependence on hydrogen ion concentration. A mechanism involving [...] or a protonated form of the radical in a reaction with the dimer appeared to fit the observed facts.
Part II: A preliminary rate study of the catalyzed addition-reaction between HCl and vinyl chloride was conducted in a continuous-flow stirred reactor. Gas-phase chromatography was used in the analysis of the chemical constituents.
The rate data for the primary reaction appeared to fit, at least empirically, a second-order rate law with respect to the forward reaction.
In addition to the primary reaction, fouling of the catalyst, ZnCl2, was also observed, but the decreasing conversion as a function of catalyst-exposure time reached an asymptotic value greater than zero. This indicated that the catalyst fouling was an irreversible dual-site mechanism.
The fact that 1,1 dichloroethane was formed exclusively in the primary reaction eliminated the possibility of a free-radical reaction. Because of the relatively low rate of reaction, even in the presence of a catalyst, the addition probably occurred by a four-center-type mechanism.
|Item Type:||Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))|
|Degree Grantor:||California Institute of Technology|
|Division:||Chemistry and Chemical Engineering|
|Major Option:||Chemical Engineering|
|Thesis Availability:||Public (worldwide access)|
|Defense Date:||1 January 1959|
|Default Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Imported from ETD-db|
|Deposited On:||21 Feb 2006|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 02:31|
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