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Catalysts for olefin metathesis: ruthenium alkylidene complexes with phosphine and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands

Citation

Trnka, Tina Maria (2003) Catalysts for olefin metathesis: ruthenium alkylidene complexes with phosphine and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-01302003-225031

Abstract

The objectives of the work described in this dissertation were twofold: (1) to further improve the activity and selectivity of ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts, and (2) to obtain a better understanding of how these catalysts operate. The first problem was addressed by varying the ligand sphere within the L2X2Ru=CHR framework. Chapter 2 explores the metathesis of directly functionalized olefins, such as 1,1-difluoroethylene and acrylonitrile. Detailed studies revealed that ruthenium alkylidene complexes react readily with these olefins but stop after a single turnover of the catalytic cycle. This effect is caused by electronically deactivating carbene substituents, which dramatically decrease the rate of phosphine dissociation from the metal center and thus prevent catalyst re-initiation. Chapter 3 describes complexes where the L ligands are phosphines, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), imidazoles, or pyridines, where the X ligands are chlorides, and where the carbene moiety is either benzylidene or a cyclic moiety. Improved catalytic activity and selectivity were achieved with complexes containing a combination of phosphine and NHC ligands. The reactivity and stability profiles of these species can be tuned through the stereoelectronic properties of the NHC. To facilitate the use of NHCs in organometallic applications, a synthetic route was developed that employs NHC adducts to protect the reactive carbene centers. Chapter 4 describes the reactions of ruthenium alkylidene complexes with alkynes. In the majority of cases, the metathesis polymerization of alkynes is unsuccessful because of competing reactions to form eta3-vinylcarbene and eta5-cyclopentadienyl derivatives. The eta3-vinylcarbene complexes are particularly interesting as models for the olefin-bound intermediate in the olefin metathesis catalytic cycle, and their structures demonstrate that it is possible for the chloride ligands to adopt a cis arrangement that places one of the chlorides trans to the L donor ligand. The studies in Chapter 5 explore the stereoelectronic properties of phosphine and NHC ligands and provide valuable insights about electronic structure and bonding. This information was obtained by a variety of techniques, including structure-activity studies, kinetics, x-ray crystallography, heteronuclear NMR, infrared spectroscopy, and gas-phase UV photoelectron spectroscopy.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:alkyne; photoelectron spectroscopy; polymerization; ring closing; x-ray crystallography
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemistry
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Grubbs, Robert H.
Thesis Committee:
  • Bercaw, John E. (chair)
  • Barton, Jacqueline K.
  • Dervan, Peter B.
  • Grubbs, Robert H.
Defense Date:20 December 2002
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-01302003-225031
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-01302003-225031
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:404
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:03 Feb 2003
Last Modified:26 Dec 2012 02:29

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