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I. Synthesis, characterization, and base catalysis of novel zeolite supported super-basic materials. II. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over reduced heteropolyanion catalysts

Citation

Galownia, Jonathan Michael (2005) I. Synthesis, characterization, and base catalysis of novel zeolite supported super-basic materials. II. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over reduced heteropolyanion catalysts. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05242005-230657

Abstract

This thesis is composed of two separate and unrelated projects. The first part of this thesis outlines an investigation into the synthesis and characterization of a novel zeolite supported super-base capable of carbon-carbon olefin addition to alkyl aromatics. A zeolite supported basic material capable of such reactions would benefit many fine chemical syntheses, as well as vastly improve the economics associated with production of the high performance thermoplastic polyester polyethylene naphthalate.

The thermal decomposition of alkali—metal azides impregnated in zeolite X is investigated as a novel route to the synthesis of a zeolite supported super-base. Impregnation of the alkali—metal azide precursor is shown to result in azide species occluded within the pores of the zeolite support by using high speed, solid-state 23Na MAS and 2D MQMAS NMR, FTIR, and TGA characterization methods. Addition of alkali—metal azides to the zeolite results in redistribution of the extra-lattice cations in the zeolite framework. Thermal decomposition of impregnated azide species produces further cation redistribution, but no neutral metallic clusters are detected by high speed, solid-state 23Na MAS NMR following thermal activation of the materials. Instead, it is possible that inactive ionic clusters are formed. The thermally activated materials do not promote base catalysis for the isomerization of 1-butene, the ethylation of toluene and o-xylene, and the alkenylation of o-xylene with 1,3-butadiene to produce 5-ortho-tolyl-pent-2-ene (5-OTP). The lack of catalytic activity in the materials is attributed to failure of the materials to form neutral metallic clusters during thermal treatment, possibly due to preferential formation of NMR silent ionic clusters. The formation of neutral metallic clusters is found to be insensitive to synthesis technique and activation procedure. It is concluded that the impregnation of alkali—metal azides in zeolite X does not provide a reliable precursor for the formation of zeolite supported super-basic materials.

The second part of this thesis describes the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over partially reduced heteropolyanions. Niobium and pyridine exchanged salts of phosphomolybdic (NbPMo12Pyr) and phosphovanadomolybdic (NbPMo11VPyr) acids are investigated as catalyst precursors to prepare materials for catalyzing the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid at atmospheric pressure. The effects of feed composition, steam flow, temperature, and precursor composition on catalytic activity and selectivity are presented for both ethane and ethylene oxidation. Production of ethylene and acetic acid from ethane using the catalytic materials exceeds that reported in the literature for Mo-V-Nb-Ox systems under atmospheric or elevated pressure. Production of acetic acid from ethylene is also greater than that observed for Mo-V-Nb-Ox systems. Addition of vanadium reduces catalytic activity and selectivity to both ethylene and acetic acid while niobium is essential for the formation of acetic acid from ethane. Other metals such as antimony, iron, and gallium do not provide the same beneficial effect as niobium. Molybdenum in close proximity to niobium is the active site for ethane activation while niobium is directly involved in the transformation of ethylene to acetic acid. A balance of niobium and protonated pyridine is required to produce an active catalyst. Water is found to aid in desorption of acetic acid, thereby limiting deep oxidation to carbon oxides. A reaction scheme is proposed for the production of acetic acid from ethane over the catalytic materials.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:alkenylation; base catalysis; effect of steam; heteropolanion; molybdenum; niobium; oxidative dehydration; zeolites
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Chemical Engineering
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Davis, Mark E.
Thesis Committee:
  • Davis, Mark E. (chair)
  • Labinger, Jay A.
  • Flagan, Richard C.
  • Zones, Stacey I.
Defense Date:27 May 2005
Author Email:jonathan.galownia (AT) gmail.com
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-05242005-230657
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05242005-230657
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:2006
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:31 May 2005
Last Modified:26 Dec 2012 02:45

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