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Structure and function studies of the human dopamine receptors

Citation

Kalani, M. Yashar S. (2004) Structure and function studies of the human dopamine receptors. Dissertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05042004-203854

Abstract

Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the three-dimensional (3-D) structure for the dopamine receptors and of the binding site for dopamine and other agonists and antagonists. In this thesis, I report the 3-D structures of the 5 subtypes of the human dopamine receptors, predicted from primary sequence using first principles theoretical and computational techniques. I use the term "first principles" to mean that we do not use the high resolution crystal structure of rhodopsin as a template, nor do we use homology modeling or threading of any kind to determine the structure. Predicting the binding sites, and the relative binding affinities of endogenous ligands and various pharmaceuticals to the 5 receptors validates the predicted structures. These structures correctly predict the critical residues for binding dopamine and several antagonists, identified by mutation studies and give relative binding affinities that correlate well with experiment. The predicted binding site for dopamine and agonists is located between transmembrane helices (TM) 3, 4, 5, and 6, while the best antagonists bind to a site involving TM helices 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 with minimal contacts to TM 5. We identify characteristic differences between the binding sites of agonists and antagonists, as well as factors that cause differential binding to the 5 subtypes of the human dopamine receptors. This thesis consists of five chapters that have, or will shortly result in publications. The first chapter is a brief introduction to the field, the motivation for the project, my scientific contributions, and contribution of others on the team. Chapter two introduces the methods and their successes at reproducing experimentally known results for the human D2 dopamine receptor; it discusses, in great detail, the active site of pharmaceutical agonists and antagonists to the human D2 dopamine receptor, and highlights the strengths and shortcomings of homology modeling for membrane bound proteins; this chapter will be submitted for publication to the Journal of Molecular Biology. Chapter three reports the results of a blind study performed in collaboration with Aventis Pharmaceuticals. For this study, we were provided with the two-dimensional structure of 9 antagonists and were asked to predict their binding sites, binding affinities, and to explain the differential binding of the ligands to the human D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and the human a1A adrenergic receptor. The results of this study are in preparation for submission to the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Chapters four and five of the thesis give preliminary results of comparative studies of the agonist and antagonist binding sites of the five subtypes of the human dopamine receptors. Chapter 6 contains results of another blind study on the G2A receptor with Professor Owen Witte. In addition to the six main chapters, this thesis contains 6 independent appendices that report results of similar studies in other systems. The first 2 appendices are work that has already been published. The remaining 4 appendices will shortly result in publications, but at this time, they are not publication worthy; these appendices represent data that has been analyzed but has not been written in paper format. In addition, I would like to make note of the studies that I have conducted on the 9 subtypes of the human adrenergic receptors with Mr. Peter Freddolino, the 4 human histamine receptors that were conducted with Mr. Freddolino and Mr. Maziyar Kalani, and the 4 G2A-like lipid receptors conducted with Mr. Rene Trabanino, Dr. Radu, Dr. Yang, and Professor Owen Witte of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Item Type:Thesis (Dissertation (Ph.D.))
Subject Keywords:dopamine receptors; GPCR; membrane protein
Degree Grantor:California Institute of Technology
Division:Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Major Option:Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics
Thesis Availability:Public (worldwide access)
Research Advisor(s):
  • Goddard, William A., III
Thesis Committee:
  • Vaidehi, Nagarajan
Defense Date:3 May 2004
Author Email:kalani (AT) wag.caltech.edu
Record Number:CaltechETD:etd-05042004-203854
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05042004-203854
Default Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:1599
Collection:CaltechTHESIS
Deposited By: Imported from ETD-db
Deposited On:06 May 2004
Last Modified:26 Dec 2012 02:39

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